In late 2006, honeybee keepers across the United States began reporting inexplicable behaviour in their colonies: for no apparent reason, bees were leaving their hives and never returning.Puzzled scientists and worried beekeepers were anxious to figure out what caused the bees to act so strangely. Hypotheses about the cause of the die-off, dubbed Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), soon began to surface. Theories blamed everything from mites to pesticides to cell phones but the only point of agreement was that bees were vanishing, at least until recently. A study in the journal Science points to Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV) as the most likely cause of CCD. Researchers compared genetic samples from beekeeping operations that had reported CCD with samples from unaffected operations. They found the virus in all of the CCD stricken colonies and only one of the healthy colonies. As well, it was found that IAPV caused an increase in a hive’s risk of CCD. The researchers propose that Australia is the source of the virus, as they found relatively high concentrations of IAPV in a sample of imported Australian bees.Dr. James Thomson, a professor of ecology and evolutionary biology at the University of Toronto, has been studying bees for 30 years and was not involved in the study.“This [study] to my mind is a pretty good smoking gun for [CCD] being a viral disease and that’s more or less what people were saying,” said Thomson. “It had to be some infectious disease that would move around quickly.”The researchers point out that, due to the infancy of their research, they have not explicitly proven that IAPV is the cause of Colony Collapse Disorder. They do, however, maintain that IAPV is a very good indicator that a honey bee operation may develop a disease.Some scientists have taken a different approach to the CCD problem. Instead of seeking the cause of the bee disappearance, they are trying to find a means of pollination that could be used in its place. Currently used for the commercial pollination of certain crops, solitary bees and bumblebees offer a prospective solution.In a study published late last year in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, two researchers from the University of California showed that honeybee sunflower pollination efficiency can increase when wild bees are also present. “We found that behavioral interactions between wild and honeybees increase the pollination efficiency of honeybees on hybrid sunflower up to five-fold,” wrote Sarah Davis and Claire Kremen.Kremen also worked on a study that looked at the relationship between wild bees and watermelon pollination. The study, published in Ecology Letters, proposed that watermelon farmers might be able to use wild bees instead of honeybees to propagate their crop.Using wild bees to supplement honeybees is not as easy as replacing one with the other, however. Honeybees are convenient pollinators for large-scale, conventional agriculture because they live separate from the crop site, allowing for large quantities of pesticides to be used on crops without worrying about killing the bees.“You can create a biological desert in your fields and then just truck in honeybees for the week that you need pollination,” explained Thomson. “Then they get trucked somewhere else and pollinate for someone else and you don’t have to create a healthy ecosystem that can support wild bees throughout the year.”As well, many people raise honeybees for a living, either as pollinators or as honey producers. Wild bees do not make marketable quantities of honey. “A big bumblebee nest might give you a teaspoon full on a good day,” said Thomson.Investigations regarding the disorder are still in their early stages and there is a lot of research to be done concerning the root of CCD. One thing is certain: more hard evidence is needed about both CCD and wild bees before anyone can be sure of the severity of the bee die-off.Further information is needed about colonies that have suffered from CCD, especially concerning the magnitude to which their corresponding bee operations have been affected. Until a greater sampling of CCD-affected hives has been tested for IAPV, no one can be sure that it is the cause of the bees’ mysterious behaviour. It is also unclear how much of the honeybees’ work wild bees could do. This stems partly from the fact that the ecology of most wild bees has not been studied in depth enough to accurately predict how much of the load they could bear.“There is some redundancy and some ability in the system to be resilient and to take up slack,” said Thomson. “But clearly it’s deeply worrying when we see species winking out across the landscape—especially when we don’t know why.”
Flight of the honeybees
Can-con 2007: Part II
The NHL season opened this weekend in grand fashion, with the Anaheim Ducks facing off against the Los Angeles Kings in London, England—a first in NHL history. Meanwhile on the other side of the pond, the other NHL clubs will have to wait until Wednesday to officially kickoff their opening night festivities. With that in mind here’s a last minute primer on what the Canadian clubs out West were up to over the summer.
The Calgary Flames
The Flames’ most significant off-season change took place not on the ice but behind the bench, when GM Darryl Sutter replaced assistant-turnedhead- coach Jim Playfair with Mike Keenan. By most accounts, the Flames underachieved in Playfair’s first and last season as head coach, with a roster that looked talented on paper and posted the league’s third-best home record, but struggled at eighth-worst on the road and barely squeaked into the playoffs after a late-season collapse. Sutter is hoping that “Iron Mike” will restore the team’s tough, defensive identity after a year in which the normally fiery Flames were too easy to play against.Calgary’s nucleus remains intact after locking up captain and former Rocket Richard-winner Jarome Iginla and defensive stalwart Robyn Regehr for the long term. The Flames lost forwards Tony Amonte, Jeff Friesen, Darren McCarty and Byron Ritchie— none of which should be a significant loss—as well as defencemen Roman Hamrlik and Brad Stuart to free agency. Third-year blueliner Dion Phaneuf will be without partner Hamrlik for the first time and is likely to be paired with newcomer Cory Sarich, inked to a fiveyear deal with Calgary. Sarich should add some grit to the team and improve its penalty kill, a disappointing 22 in the league last year.Sutter swapped defencemen with Chicago, trading Andrei Zyuzin for Adrian Aucoin, who is a risky pick for the Flames and may only be a shadow of his former self. Aucoin who struggled with injuries multiple times last year, would have been a healthy scratch on the roster, as a $4-million player and team captain to boot. Sutter also signed the injury-plagued Owen Nolan, who at the age of 35 is unlikely to regain the offensive touch he had in the past. Yet another question mark is how winger Kristian Huselius—who had a breakout season in 06-07 and set career highs in goals, assists, and points—will fare under Keenan, since the two butted heads while with the Florida Panthers. If Keenan is a good fit in Calgary, the team should fare better this year and will challenge for the divisional title.
The Edmonton Oilers
Edmonton is looking to recover from a season of disaster and injuries (at one point eleven regulars were out of the lineup), in which the team lost heart-and-soul winger Ryan Smyth at the trade deadline and won only two of their last 19 games. This year seems to be getting off on the wrong foot with 2006 playoff hero Fernando Pisani out indefinitely with colitis, but it would take an explosion in Edmonton’s black cat population (an unforeseen consequence of climate change, perhaps?) for the Oilers’ luck with injuries to be as bad as last season’s.GM Kevin Lowe faced another difficult off-season when Edmonton’s reputation as a Canadian Siberia hurt his ability to lure free agents to the city and prompted talented playmaker Michael Nylander to back out of a deal at the last minute. The Oilers did, however, manage to land free agent defenceman Sheldon Souray, whose booming slapshot should give Edmonton’s 27thranked power play a much-needed boost. The defence corps is also bolstered by the return of Dick Tarnstrom after a year in Switzerland, and the acquisition of the young Joni Pitkanen, who has loads of potential and is expected to produce more offence from the back end.After a failed attempt to pluck restricted free agent Thomas Vanek from the Buffalo Sabres, Lowe ruffled the Ducks’ feathers by submitting an offer for 29-goal-scorer Dustin Penner, drawing the ire of Anaheim GM Bryan Burke, who declined to match the fiveyear, $21.5-million offer. Penner will likely play trigger man to playmaking winger Ales Hemsky—who has a lot of talent but is coming off a bad season— and is expected to help fill the void left by the departure of Edmonton’s leading scorer, Petr Sykora.The team will need its veterans to take leadership roles after losing Smyth and hard-nosed captain Jason Smith, who was traded to Philadelphia with Joffrey Lupul for Pitkanen and Geoff Sanderson. Sanderson could provide some veteran leadership but after a disappointing season with the Flyers, this 35-year-old’s best years are probably behind him.There are a few open spots in the Oilers’ lineup and there’s a chance that former OHL star Rob Schremp, NCAA standout Andrew Cogliano, or even 2007 sixth-overall pick Sam Gagner could make the team. The Oilers’ 07/08 lineup looks to be better than last year’s, but not enough to turn them into contenders, and come playoff time the Oil will likely be on the outside looking in.
The Vancouver Canucks
When the Canucks traded for goaltender Roberto Luongo in the summer of 2006, he turned out to be everything they’d hoped for and more, earning nominations for the Hart and Vezina trophies while leading his team to the Northwest Division title. Coach Alain Vigneault won the Jack Adams Trophy as coach of the year after a successful first season behind Vancouver’s bench, and 26-year-old defenceman Kevin Bieksa—a pleasant surprise on a strong blueline corps—had a breakout year. GM Dave Nonis bolstered Vancouver’s already stingy defence over the summer by adding veteran rearguard Aaron Miller, and top defensive prospect Luc Bourdon stands a chance at making the team and making an impact.That being said, Nonis has done little to improve the team’s struggling offence. Twins Daniel and Henrik Sedin had a breakout season in 06/07, and both posted new career highs in scoring, but Brendan Morrison and captain Markus Naslund did not live up to expectations, and the team ranked 22nd in the league in goals for. Nonis signed forwards Brad Isbister, Byron Ritchie and Ryan Shannon, but they won’t light up the scoresheet and are not a significant improvement over the expendable forwards Vancouver declined to re-sign.The ‘Nucks are still a playoff team and their offence could improve if Naslund and Morrison return to form or if any of the new acquisitions demonstrate some hidden goal-scoring talent, but given the productive off-seasons of Vancouver’s divisional foes, the Canucks will be hard-pressed to repeat as Northwest champions.
Who’s responsible for IT at U of T?
If you had trouble logging onto the Blackboard Portal at the beginning of the year, you aren’t alone. According to a recent estimate provided to the Resource Centre for Academic Technology, who manages Blackboard, the the system has up to 40,000 student users, all of whom were unable to access the portal during intermittent outages during September.Over the past several weeks, the RCAT staff have worked overtime and flown in Blackboard experts from Washington to stabilize the system. Blackboard is now stable, but the cause of the glitches are still unknown, in part because new hardware was installed at the same time as the software update.It’s a situation that Linda Murphy- Boyer, director of RCAT, isn’t entirely happy with. “We’re being very cautious how we run the system right now,” she said. For this reason, planned blackout periods have been installed between midnight and 5:00 a.m. That window of time allows analysts to look at what went wrong and update the system. Murphy-Boyer is apologetic for these blackout periods, recognizing that the hours after midnight are many students’ peak work time. RCAT is currently trying to reduce the blackout periods so that they fall later in the morning, between 3:00 and 5:00 a.m.You’re also not alone if you hadn’t even heard of Blackboard until this year. Two years ago there were 12 to 15 course management systems operating at U of T. Until recently, the system best-known amongst Arts & Science students was CCNet. Information collected by RCAT shows that in the 2004-05 school year, 1,856 courses used CCnet, whereas only 150 courses, mostly in the Faculty of Medicine, used Blackboard.In January 2006, U of T decided to use Blackboard as the school’s centrally-supported courseware system. A pilot phase began in September 2006, in which all former WebCT users, new faculty, and original Blackboard users were moved to the new system. During that phase, Blackboard had 600 courses and communities, and 18,000 student “seats”.RCAT currently has only nine staff—“We could use more,” said Murphy-Boyer—and the outages may not have been caused by the software update itself. The university is currently attempting to reduce redundancy by cutting down on the number of systems being used. Whereas a June report to the provost by the administrative review committee on University ITS (ITS Review) identified 128 different e-mail systems being used across departments, administration is now pushing hard for all interactions between students and the university to be over UTORmail. But with that consolidation of IT resources comes greater dependence on centrally administered systems. The Blackboard outages in September raise the question of who is ultimately responsible for IT at U of T.According to a June report prepared by the Office of the Provost, U of T spent approximately $68 million on Information Technology Services (ITS), including salaries, hardware, software, and services in 2005-06. Of this, about $24 million was devoted to central IT services, such as Blackboard. Yet, the report noted, these are probably conservative estimates of the amount U of T truly spends on ITS. For example, the provost’s office knows of 509 U of T staff with IT-related job titles in central and divisional departments, but it is harder to track the IT services performed by staff without these job titles.Putting a dollar figure on central ITS is also difficult because several portfolios manage central ITS at U of T: the VP business affairs manages Administrative Management Services (AMS), while the provost is ultimately responsible for RCAT, ROSI, Central Network Services (CNS), and the Office of Space Management (OSM).In addition, there are several noncentral IT services at the divisional or departmental level, such as UTSU’s Information and Instructional Technology Service, UTM’s Computing Services, the Engineering Computing Facility, and CHASS. An administrative review committee on University ITS, undertaken by the Office of the Vice-President and Provost in July, recommended a central group, overseen by a chief information officer, to oversee the various services and portfolios, like systems at other schools. The CIO’s tasks would include providing accountability to members of the university on ITS matters.
No brotherly love?
Philadelphia Eagles quarterback Donovan McNabb got caught in a firestorm of criticism recently as a result of controversial comments made during an interview on HBO’s “Real Sports with Bryant Gumbel”. In an honest and upfront manner, McNabb stated that:“There are not that many African–American quarterbacks, so we have to do a little bit extra. The percentage of us playing this position, which people didn’t want us to play, is low. So we have to do a little extra”. He went on to provide examples of how often he gets questioned even when his team is performing well; and further added that white quarterbacks such as Peyton Manning and Carson Palmer do not get criticized nearly as much as their black counterparts. It may be the case that black quarterbacks face more scrutiny than white quarterbacks, but that is something that can’t be proved beyond a shadow of a doubt.Various factors come into play that may account for the perceived difference that may have nothing to do with race.With that being said, the analysis of the McNabb situation should be focused on whether this is simply a situation of a frustrated quarterback who just happens to be black. After all, Philadelphia has a passionate and outspoken fan base that demands a lot out of their franchise players, especially when the city is in dire need of a championship. When you add the fact that the Eagles have provided him with an inadequate group of wide receivers, is it any wonder that McNabb feels like he’s alone out there?Eagles’ management has essentially turned their back on McNabb, through their inability to sign highend free agents to complement their talented quarterback.The last time McNabb had a worthy supporting cast, was the combustible Terrell Owens. With Owens’ help, McNabb led the Eagles all the way to the Super Bowl, where they eventually lost to the New England Patriots. Comments like the ones McNabb made on HBO are highly out of character for him. In fact pundits often accuse him of being a “company boy” – too reluctant to rock the boat. Clearly something happened to instill this “me against the world” attitude in the otherwise mild-mannered quarterback.McNabb’s point seems to be that black quarterbacks have to earn every inch of ground on the field, while their white counterparts get all the leeway off of it. Perhaps these arguments are not completely without basis. Players like Brett Favre of the Green Bay Packers often get a free pass despite poor performances, but they have also earned much of this consideration through past success.Instead of making inflammatory comments off the field, the Eagles quarterback might be better served to let his play do the talking. No doubt Favre and Peyton Manning fit the stereotypical image of the “All- American quarterback” that has been the standard in football since ‘Johnny’ Unitas, but they also face their share of criticism. Until his Indianapolis Colts won the Super Bowl last season, Manning held the stigma of being another talented quarterback who couldn’t come through in the clutch. The same could be said of other white quarterbacks, like Manning’s younger brother Eli of the New York Giants or Rex Grossman from the Chicago Bears.Donovan McNabb is a talented quarterback and an excellent role model for all aspiring young athletes, but it may simply be time for him to move on to a different team. His comments while controversial can be attributed to frustration, and the pressure of trying to bring a championship to Philadelphia finally taking their toll.
Field notes from the campaign trail
A fair share of the fare?
“How would you address the current fiscal situation the City of Toronto?” UTSU asked provincial candidates in a debate last Wednesday, stressing their interest in how well candidates would fund transit and other city services heavily used by students.Property taxes make up most of the city’s revenue. Last year, 32 per cent of that revenue went to provinciallymandated programs downloaded on the city by the province in the 1990s. Mayor David Miller argued that the remaining 68 per cent was not enough to pay for municipal services like the TTC.After city council voted not to consider new taxes until after the provincial election, the TTC announced a metropass fare hike. With that election here, all four party platforms have plans to upload costs back to the provincial government, and candidates tripped over one another to promise to foot the largest share of the city’s bill.Liberal candidate Kate Holloway has pointed to the City of Toronto Act her party passed, giving the city more taxing powers. She also claimed that the McGuinty government invested five times more funding in Toronto than the previous Conservative administration.But Rosario Marchese was unimpressed by the Liberals’ promises: “What they have begun to upload […] are the cheapest of the things that the city is carrying.”Marchese noted the costs of public housing and other programs the province has not uploaded, promising an NDP government would pay 20 per cent of TTC operating costs, and would upload the costs of provincial programs to the extent of $220 million. —JC
Live from the Munk Centre: MMP showdown
“Get to the question!” shouted 79- year-old Alan Heisey as a fellow audience member rambled on at TV Ontario’s Steve Paikin.Last Thursday at the Munk Centre, a panel discussion on Paikin’s The Agenda debated whether Ontario should switch to a Mixed Member Proportional electoral system, a method of voting meant to balance regional concerns with the popular vote.The NDP and Green Party have come out strongly in favour of a shift to MMP, while Progressive Conservative leader John Tory is opposed. Liberal leader Dalton McGuinty has remained neutral, though individual Liberal candidates have taken their own stances.The panel was made up of Rick Anderson, chair of Vote for MMP; former Ontario cabinet minister Marilyn Churley (a proponent of MMP); former deputy Prime Minister Sheila Copps (opposed to MMP); former MPP David Fleet (director of No MMP) and Professor Dennis Pilon, a University of Victoria expert on electoral systems.“I wasn’t at all satisfied with the debate,” Heisey later griped. “The pro side kept interrupting–I don’t think that was at all fair.”The majority of the audience— most of them poli sci students— were in the “pro” camp, as Paikin found when he called for a show of hands.Paikin said he’s received many questions about the MMP system, and hopes the broadcast provided a useful service.“Frankly, there hasn’t been much attempt to spread information about what (the referendum) is all about,” Paikin told The Varsity. “And I understand the Premier wants to be neutral–that’s his prerogative– but when the leaders don’t debate something it makes getting the word out very difficult.”First-year life sciences student Larissa Satta said the debate was helpful, but added, “Anyone tuning in to TVO is likely already well-informed.”“It concerns me that the majority of people I talk to do not fully know what this issue is all about. I fear they will be going to the polls and casting a vote for something they don’t fully understand, which certainly defeats the purpose of a referendum,” said Progressive Conservative candidate Tyler Currie. —BT
Bidding on minimum wage
Last Tuesday, just shy of 200 people gathered at Innis College for an allparty debate on poverty and health. The debate was organized by the Income Security Advocacy Centre, Health Providers Against Poverty and the Registered Nurses’ Association of Ontario.In her introductory remarks, debate moderator Carol Goar of the Toronto Star said she was disappointed in the candidates’ lack of attention to poverty, particularly during the televised leaders’ debate. Goar note statistics claiming that one in seven people in Ontario are living in poverty, 232,000 of them with disabilities and 345,000 children under the age of 18.The debate stalled when Elizabeth Rowley, leader of the Communist party of Ontario, demanded equal floor time equal with the Liberal, New Democratic, Progressive Conservative and Green parties.Goar put the issue to a show of hands by the audience, and Rowley was voted off the stage.“We consider the organizers our friends,” the disgruntled Rowley told The Varsity. “We don’t expect to be excluded by our friends.”Later, the two-hour debate turned its focus to minimum wage. Sheila White, the NDP candidate in Scarborough-Rouge River, reiterated her party’s support for a $10 minimum wage.Dr. Marie Bountrogianni, Minister of Intergovernmental Affairs, stood by the Liberal pledge to raise the wage from $8 to $10.25 by 2010, with a 75-cent hike next March.Rowley, from the audience, shouted the Communist pledge to raise the wage to $15, something Dr. Sanjeev Goel, deputy leader of the Green Party of Ontario running for Brampton West, said would be ideal. The Greens, however, can only promise to raise it to $10 by June. —BT
The Varsity women’s tennis team has added another loss to their near-perfect record over the weekend. While losing twice in one season may not seem like much cause for concern, for a team that has won the OUA gold medal for three consecutive years, it can be considered a slight bump in the road. While the final four seeding is yet to be determined, the Blues will most likely be joined by the University of Montreal, McGill and a fourth challenger from the OUA.Over the weekend, in their final tune up before the playoffs begin, the women’s team took on the University of Western Ontario (UWO) and McMaster. Playing conditions during Saturday’s matches were quite favorable, with excellent visibility and uncharacteristically mild wind. All in all, it seemed like the perfect setting for the women’s team to put a punctuation mark on their season. Having already defeated both teams over the past three seasons, the Blues knew what to expect from their opponents. Having said that, the end result must have been surprising to say the least. In losing to the UWO Mustangs, the lady Blues fought hard, winning two of their three doubles matches to gain one team point. Unfortunately, they were unable to carry that success over into singles play, where they won only two out of six in the course of the morning.For the Blues, Natalia Lech continued her two-year winning streak, with one of her characteristically dominating performances. She has not lost a single set over that time, and is in rare form heading into the playoffs. Lech, often described by teamates as shy off of the court, received much praise from her coach following the match:“Natalia came as a very pleasant surprise to the team last year during the tryouts” recollected coach Nabil Tadros, “While she was warming up, I could tell she would be a great player and she proved herself as an undefeated second seed player during the 2006-07 season. She is now our number one seed and I hope she continues to remain undefeated.”Even though the team has a winning record, it has not been all smooth sailing. “We have a strong team, but we also have had many close matches and there is definitely more pressure to win,” said Blues player Ekaterina Alchits. “This season has been a lot more challenging for us, but it is also exciting that we have solid competition in the OUA. We just have to be on our best game during the championships.”The Blues turned it around during their afternoon encounter with McMaster University, walking away with a 4-3 victory. Natalia Lech, Ekaterina Alchits, and Roxana Soica swept their opponents in straight sets, but three other Blues players struggled to close out their matches. Chrisitna Dykun fought a hard battle, but fell to her Marauder opponent. Rookie Aisha Bhimla seemed exhausted after an intense second set tie-break, and despite fighting back in the third set, was unable to capture the win. The Blues were able to win without one of their key players, rookie Maia Kirk, who was unable to play due to a wrist injury, but they will need all hands on deck when the OUA championship begins October 12 at York University if they hope to repeat as champions.
$300 textbook grant
Kate Holloway (Lib Trinity-Spadina): The grant is a textbook and technology grant, to help with expenses at the beginning of the school year.Tyler Currie (PC, Trinity-Spadina): It is the sort of sexy announcement one makes right before an election. Sandra Gonzalez (NDP, Toronto Centre): What is a mere $300 going to do?Dan King (Green, Trinity-Spadina): No point in under-educating our people, and then bring in foreigners for high-level positions. So, we would be supporting this plan.
KH: 2014 is the target date for the closure of the coal-fired plants.PT: The coal-fired plants need to be phased out, and in that process of phasing out we would like to install scrubbers to reduce the amount of pollution.RM: We are against nuclear expansion —the waste is not clean, it’s dangerous, and expensive. We want to shut down the coal-fi red plants by 2014.DK: The Greens are not in favour of closing down the plants, if it means unreliable energy for Ontarians. We need to gen erate a new Renaissance for wind energy.
Financial aid and OSAP reform
KH: This is something that I would definitely advocate for. TC: OSAP will be definitely be reviewed. In addition, John Tory’s plan is that medical students do not pay back loans until they complete their residency.SG: We need to re-examine the qualifications for receiving OSAP. A family in Toronto can be stretched to the limits by the current system.DK: We need to go back to a system where there are more student grants, and less student loans.
Transit and fare increases
KH: The fares are way too high, and responsibility needs to be accepted at all levels of government. We want to expand the subway system.Pamela Taylor (PC, Toronto Centre): Our plan is to take 2 cents from the gas tax, and over time this will translate into $800 million for transit, roads and bridges.RM: We want to share the costs of transit with the city of Toronto and other suburbs 50-50.SG: We would also like to extend subway service up to York University.
KH: There will be no tuition freeze, but I personally would eventually like to work with university students to ensure the fees are capped.TC: Our platform is to allot $600 million for postsecondary education. We do not want to have an increase in tuition fees.Rosario Marchese (NDP Trinity-Spadina): We need to accept responsibility and freeze tuition fees.DK: Freeze tuition fees, but we also need to create a detailed plan to lower them.
Mixed Member Proportional voting
PT: I think [MMP] is a dangerous system. The public will not be able to select which members from the lists would be chosen as MPPs. Secondly, Ontario does not need more MPPs.SG: This is a great reform. As a woman from a Hispanic background, I do not feel represented, and both women and diverse voices need to be a part of the democratic process.DK: To have a system where only 50 per cent of the population find it important to participate in the democratic system indicates that we need change.
The Lame List
What Would You Do?
Two birds, one stone: pseudo e-democracy meets everything you already knew about global warming. It can’t help that the massive screen must have soaked up a whole lot of energy.
It’s an eco-metaphor -— get it? Visitors traced their footprint on biodegradable cellophane or tinfoil, and then wrote down what they would do to save the environment. Best comment? “Stop wasting cellophane and tinfoil.”
Abomasum (the chocolate stag):
I don’t mind getting free chocolate, and the sculpture itself was pretty awesome, but was no one else expecting to be able to take a great big chomp out of that deer? Maybe claim an antler? Instead, I got a square delivered in a plastic cup. Sigh.
Sure, festivities of this scale need sponsors, and it’s good of Scotiabank to step up, but they totally ruined the Trinity-Bellwoods experience with their tents and contests to win TVs.
A lot of the independent projects
Many of the uncurated projects were great, but a lot of these were happening anyways, or just plain sucked. I’m sorry, but reading religious texts with a flashlight in the backroom of a church isn’t art.
Over-reliance on screenings, and screens in general
Many of these were just a cheap way out for locations that weren’t interested enough in coming up with something original. This definitely lowered the bar.
Limited Subway Service
Most of the people using the TTC in the wee hours of the morning are doing so because they’re not from downtown. If you’re going to have the subway run to Broadview and Christie, why not have service along the entire line?