It’s getting better

“They tell me that things will get better. I can only hope so.” With the recent suicides of five LGBTQ youth in three weeks this fall, issues of discrimination and bullying based on a person’s sexual orientation have gained prominence.

The community, faced with a suicide rate four to six times higher than in the general population, has manged to harness attention from politicians and media on continued inequalities. These struggles take place across society, including at U of T.

“It still feels […] like fighting the man,” said fourth-year student Alex Legum, sighing and shaking her head. “These are human issues.”

Legum, a member of the LGBTQ community, added that despite being a student in one of the most diverse universities and cities in North America, she continues to search for a sense of respect that remains elusive.

Steve Masse knows this struggle well. As a member of the LGBTQ community and former president of Woodsworth College, Masse advocates for increased awareness on discrimination, bullying, and respect for LGBTQ students.
alt text

He is the first to admit, however, that many of the most vulnerable end up “suffering in silence.” According to Masse, discrimination and bullying can lead to “feeling worthless, misunderstood, or hopeless.”

Syndicated sex columnist Dan Savage started the “It Gets Better” project in the wake of five teen suicides caused by societal homphobia.

University Life Assessment and Special Programs Coordinator Melinda Scott believes “students don’t know the best way to address [suicide].” Scott explained that acts of suicide are often the result of larger issues of discrimination and hate, that the problems can appear too large to solve.

To address these problems, U of T provides a series of programs and services that support the LGBTQ community. Initiatives such as Positive Space as well as student clubs like LGBTOUT work to create spaces within which individuals can “be themselves” without shame or fear of reprisal. Additionally, the Sexual and Gender Diversity Office provides an online harassment reporting system to ensure students can report incidents of hate or mistreatment anonymously.

However, Sexual and Gender Diversity Officer Jude Tate is worried about the “increased tolerance of intolerance” that has created a culture of silence and acceptance that can reduce the number of reported abuses and conceal issues of hate and harassment towards the LGBTQ community. Issues of intolerance appear to be found in the very fabric of U of T’s communities.

This is why Legum is realistic about the merits of programs such as Equity Studies, Women’s Studies, and Sexual Diversity Studies. While these programs can be seen as progressive, in some sense, “structural issues [have] made it impossible to integrate [this information] into other classrooms.” For Legum, the presence of these programs allows LGBTQ issues to be dealt with within these specific departments while ignoring the need for broader integration.

Unfortunately, Tate further suggests that curriculum reform on a broader scale to include diversity issues and address these issues has been very tough, and obstacles remain.

“They still have a long way to [go],” said Masse, who acknowledges that universities are heading in the right direction. But even if “places of education are becoming more and more inclusive and supportive,” the fact that we aren’t hearing about the sexual and gender diversity discrimination issues on campus does not mean they no longer exist.

“We assume we are modern enough that we don’t need to have [conversations about discrimination] anymore,” said Legum.

University comes together for holiday season

The University of Toronto Students’ Union, the Family Care Office, and the Student Housing Office are organizing their ninth annual food and clothing drive to help support needy families for the holidays.

“Every year, we help anywhere between 75–100 families. It’s a rather big project, and we want whatever little bit of help we can get,” explained Marketing and Events Coordinator at the Student Housing Service, Jerry Zhuang. “Every single bit of contribution will make a huge difference.

Drop boxes have been set up across campus to collect toys and canned food. Once items are collected, UTSU Member Service Coordinator Terri Nikolaevsky explained how the goods will be distributed. “The donation of new toys will then be distributed through the campus food and clothing bank to families in need on December 10 and 17 at our site location, 569 Spadina Avenue, in the Multi-Faith Centre between 12 p.m. and 3 p.m.”

“While the food and clothing bank runs all year long, we specifically collect toys at this time of the year to ensure that our student families have a great holiday season in the face of tight budgets,” continued Nikolaevsky.

Zhuang hopes U of T will come together this season and improve upon last year’s results. “We delivered around 200 toys last year. Looking to deliver to the same number of families, maybe a bit more, it’s definitely growing.”

Despite being roughly aligned with the Christmas season, Nikolaevsky stresses that all faiths and cultures are encouraged to participate. “This year we welcome Multi-Faith groups to the fold who are actively seeking donations for our students and student families.”

“We’re doing things a little differently this year,” Nikolaevsky added. “Our efforts extend further to include an annual fundraiser for the food and clothing bank [that will] showcase […] exceptional U of T talent, a wonderful three-course dinner, and an auction.”

Jennifer Bennett, manager of the Student Housing Service, said the food drive is a very key community-building event.

“The food drive is important because it’s raising awareness and creating a community between people during the holiday time, which is such a hard time for so many.”

Cheryl McGratten believes that beyond just fostering a community, the fundraiser is a way of making those who are studying abroad or are new immigrants to the country feel more welcome. “The U of T food and toy drive is one way to help those recently separated from their countries, and share some encouragement, joy, and fun,” explained McGratten, adding that she hopes they will also enjoy the diversity and multiculturalism of this city.

“It’s a great feeling, to be standing in the middle of a mountain of toys, and knowing that lots of kids will be having a wonderful winter holiday,” explained Zhuang.

In helping promote the fundraiser, the co-coordinators’ favorite catch phrase is: “We want people to help us gift a smile.”

Students gather to present visions for next big app

Last Tuesday a lecture hall in the Bahen Centre was packed for DemoCamp2, a symposium of eight presentations by U of T students demonstrating their web developments and entrepreneurial skills.

“People were actually standing in the back. They couldn’t find any more seats,” says Reginald Tan, president of Web Startup Society, who hosted the event in partnership with the U o T Entrepreneurial Society. Over 160 guests attended, well exceeding both the expected attendance of 100 and the room capacity of 150.

“We had to start turning people away after they exceeded the room capacity,” said Nitish Peters, president of UTES.

Tan and Peters created DemoCamp2 to combat what they perceived to be a lack of entrepreneurial spirit in the University of Toronto’s technology field.

“At Stanford, it seems like every single computer science student was creating a startup,” said Tan. “But when I went to U of T, I didn’t really see anything like that going on.”

Peters attributes U of T’s focus on high GPAs as a detractor from the “startup culture” found at other institutions. “DemoCamp fosters an environment where people can define their own success and show how they are following their dreams as opposed to the stereotypical environment right now where people are very marks-focused,” he said.

It wasn’t just U of T students who attended, students from all across Ontario came for the presentations as well.

“A lot of people from Queens and York showed up and really loved it, and said they wanted to start a DemoCamp at their university, which is really cool. I’d like to see that happen,” said Tan.

In contrast with last year’s DemoCamp, which was run by WSS in partnership with Rafal Dittwald, President of Skule Webdev, this year’s collaboration with UTES focused on the utility and marketability of students’ web applications, as opposed to nitty gritty tech details.

“The audience at this one was much more focused on the startup aspect, rather than the craft of making the project,” notes James Cash, the only presenter to even mention code in his demo for the Google Chrome extension, ComicNav.

Three of the eight demos were presented by student entrepreneurs with limited technical knowledge. Danial Jameel of OohLaLa, who switched from computer science to political science, showcased a mobile app for discount student coupons.

First-year commerce student Donny Ouyang, of the tutoring site Rayku, hires developers out of his own pocket. “Donny buys websites, hires developers to make improvements, then sells them off for five times the profits — instead of flipping real estate, he flips websites,” said Tan. “Rayku was his first start-up.”

When Khaled Hashem of was asked a technical question, his response was, “I don’t know, ask the tech guy.”

alt text
The other five presentations were given by so-called “hackers.” First up was fourth year electrical engineer Bijan Vaez with EventMobi, an iPhone application that allows users to view important details about the live event that they are attending. Next were Lori Lee and Andrew Danks, undergraduate students in computer science who developed LoveUT, a dating site exclusively for U of T students that has accumulated over 800 users. Michael Rice, a second year computer science student demoed Remember To Watch, an SMS reminder for TV shows recently featured in PC Magazine and After James Cash demoed ComicNav, wunderkind Vincent Cheung took the stage and demonstrated his massively successful Shape Collage, an automatic photo collage maker.

Cheung emphasized the value of every utility-based web startup in his presentation: “A lot of [the entrepreneurs in the audience] laughed at the ComicNav extension, but I liked it. You never know, it really could be the next big thing.”

When the event ended, Reginald Tan appeared very pleased with the results.

“Ultimately, what we wanted to achieve from DemoCamp is to glorify these student hackers and hustlers. And we did just that. Democamp UofT encouraged students to do what they do best: build great things. And the great thing about the Internet is that you can make an immediate impact on the world if you create something really valuable.”

Note: this article originally stated that Danial Jameel hired student developers with money he won from business competitions, but this is not the case. It also neglected to mention that last year’s DemoCamp was in partnership with Rafal Dittwald. The Varsity regrets the errors.

UTSC Library operating hours shortened

The University of Toronto Scarborough Library has launched reduced hours in response to recent pilot studies, stirring mixed feelings from staff and students.

Last year’s 24/7 service ran 10 weeks through fall and 13 weeks through winter. This year, the service is scheduled only during exams from December 7 to December 21, and from April 9 to May 1. This represents an almost 80 per cent reduction from the previous year. For the remainder of both semesters — after Thanksgiving during fall and after February 7 during winter — the new extended hours stretch from 8 a.m. to 2 a.m. on Mondays to Thursdays, 8 a.m. to 12 a.m. on Fridays and noon to midnight on Saturdays and Sundays.

“The library worked very closely with students in determining hours that will best serve their needs,” said Victoria Owen, UTSC’s head librarian. “We spent years conducting pilot projects, […] consultations, surveys, and focus groups to establish a schedule that is most beneficial to them.”

Since 2005, the library has been running a series of pilot projects that test the efficiency of various operating hours. Last year’s study showed that after 2 a.m., average student usage fell to 31 before exams and to 78 throughout the exam period. The numbers continued to drop until 7 a.m. when they reached an average of 17 and 50 respectively, followed by an upward trend throughout the day.

Owen explained that the changes were “designed to maximize resources and meet student demand where it exists,” but some are concerned that the library‘s current layout is still not quite meeting students’ needs.

“As a university, we aim to educate students and have them attain academic success — longer library hours will help us achieve [this] mission,” said Fran Wdowczyk, special advisor to the chief administrative officer and chair of the study space working committee advocating for the increase of 24/7 study spaces on campus.

“Some students have approached me troubled with the reduced hours,” said Scarborough Campus Students’ Union VP Academics Sulaimaan Abdus-Samad. “They just want a place where they can focus for long periods of time and not have to think of leaving at a certain hour.”

Third-year student Philip So has his own reservations. “Though a 24-hour service is ideal, we are throwing away resources by keeping the library open when less than one per cent of the [student body] is using it,” said So.

The Hazel McCallion Academic Learning Centre is the library at UTM, a campus of similar size to UTSC. It holds extended hours until midnight and also offers 24/7 services only around exam periods.

“UTSC has some of the longest hours among the U of T libraries,” asserts Owen, but Wdowczyk believes that there is still room for improvement.

“Increasing hours is a move that will propel the students towards success, and we will continue to work with the library so that the needs of students are realized.”

Mission extended

We were promised by Prime Minister Stephen Harper that our troops would be leaving Afghanistan originally in February 2011. The deadline was then pushed to July 2011. Now Harper tells us that we are keeping 950 troops in Afghanistan until 2014 — the deadline NATO has set for a complete withdrawal and the turnover of security to the Afghan military. Harper says that this falls within the scope of the vote that occurred in the House of Commons and that it is his government’s executive authority to make such decisions without another vote in Parliament. This attitude goes against both what Harper promised in his last election platform and what he said to Parliament four years ago.

A recent Canadian Press Harris-Decima poll has found that Canadians are weary about the fate of the Afghan mission. While sentiment is split on the new role of training the Afghan military, an overwhelming 60 per cent of respondents said they oppose outright any military presence in the region, and only 37 per cent support it. Canadians do not wish to see any more fatalities, and feel that the 152 soldiers we have lost in the nine years since this mission began is enough.

So with this sentiment, it needs to be asked — where is the opposition? Why are we letting a minority government make such a monumental decision that could cost the lives of more Canadians?

The answer is simple — it comes down to party politics.

Michael Ignatieff has not denounced the government’s decision, nor has he called for any public debate in the House of Commons or demanded a new vote, while the NDP and Bloc Québecois have cried foul. Having been quite un-engaged on the matter, Ignatieff has said very little about this important issue.
alt text

The Liberal leader has two main reasons for not forcing a proper debate and vote in Parliament on this issue.

It would be advantageous to allow Harper’s Conservatives to make this decision, which is incredibly unpopular, as a form of political suicide. The next time there is an election which could come any time in this minority parliament, Ignatieff is likely to use the decision as fodder to help the Liberal campaign. They will position themselves as the party that truly listens to the people, and ride on the coattails of the unpopularity that is sure to dog Harper’s Conservatives. We must not ignore the fact that the Liberals and Conservatives are currently in a virtual tie in the polls, according to EKOS Politics, and if an election were to be held today the Conservatives would garnish 29.4 per cent of the popular vote, compared to the 28.6 per cent for the Liberals. This means that an election result is completely up in the air, so any advantage one party has over the other is worth exploiting.

Also, the Liberal caucus is incredibly divided on the issue of extending this training mission until 2014. Ignatieff simply cannot let these divisions show or else his party may lose some of the confidence the Canadian public has in them to form the next government. Simply put — Ignatieff does not have the support of his party to oppose this decision that Stephen Harper has forced upon Canadians. So, he will keep the criticisms in check, and smile and nod for the decisions that are being made.

What is more disturbing is the idea that Canadians will not be in military combat — something that Canadians are vehemently against. The government is spending $85-million to transfer the Canadian Forces Base at Kandahar to Kabul, where they will train the Afghan military. Stephen Harper wants us to believe that our 950 troops will be safe there, and will be free from combat. But how can he guarantee this? The Taliban, which has been battling NATO forces in the region for nine years now, is not going away. They are continually finding ways to attack NATO troops. Sure, the Canadians will not be going out looking for a fight, but there is no guarantee that the fighting will not come to them.

All in all, it comes down to the fact that we were lied to. The Conservatives are going back on their election platform, and the Liberals are letting them. The only parliamentarians looking out for us are those in the NDP and Bloc. Too bad neither of those parties are going to form the next government.

Gird your loins

A recent study from Concordia University lead by Professor Wayne Brake has shown that high levels of estrogen in female rats interfere with their learning of previously encountered stimuli.

The study confirms recent findings that high levels of a major female sex hormone, called estradiol, interfere with latent inhibition. Latent inhibition is a kind of “hidden” learning that results in decreased performance on tasks.

Brake’s study is a follow-up to a previous study in which estrogen was experimentally manipulated by removing the ovaries, replacing them with low or high doses of estrogen. Interestingly, both studies yielded the exact same results.

This study is the first to show that the interference of estrogen is based in the activational and not organizational actions of hormones. As U of T’s Gillian Einstein explains in her book, Sex and the Brain, the cornerstone in the field of hormones and behaviour is the organizational and activational hypothesis. This is the idea that the organization of hormones early in development forms a circuit that is later activated at puberty. Fro example, these circuits set up the behaviour of “mounting” and “lordosis,” in which a male rat will mount onto a female after she performs the receptive cue of arching her back.

Another key idea when thinking about estrogen is that its influence can either be beneficial, such as in memory and aging, or negative in that it can cause cancer. In response to the results of Brake’s study, Professor Einstein explains that “the picture is a lot more subtle for [estradiol].”

alt text
In other words, we don’t know whether the effects of estradiol on learning are “negative to behaviour, or positive to behaviour [when] interfering with latent inhibition. That could be positive in memory or it could be negative in memory. But it’s the first [study] to show that this is based on the activation of actions of hormones,” says Einstein.

So what does this mean for human females? As it turns out, ladies and female rats are quite different. In contrast to a female human’s average 28-day menstrual cycle, female rats cycle every four to five days, meaning that rats are continuously dominated by their estrous cycle. For the people out there wondering whether female rats experience PMS symptoms the same way female humans do, the short answer is no: the two species are riddled with complexities that make them difficult to compare.

As Professor Brake explains, “It’s hard to measure what we would call PMS in rodents, simply because what goes on with them is far more outlandish — because the female now only has one thing on her mind, and that’s to reproduce.”

Both researchers stress that the effect of estrogen on mental resources involves a highly complex relationship.

When asked whether there was any task that was most likely to tax a woman’s memory resources, Professor Brake responded, “I wouldn’t even try to guess that. There are lots of cognitive tasks that people use in psychology that tax resources. Some tasks show that estrogen helps with these tasks, and sometimes it hurts.”

Brake’s study also supports the idea that estrogen affects women’s abilities to problem-solve. “An example [of estrogen influence] would be mental rotation tasks. There is a huge sex difference in mental rotation tasks, in that men are much faster at figuring out this task than women. Women are usually only worse at this task when their estrogen levels are high. When their estrogen levels are lower, they perform just as well as men. The practical application of that is if you’re the navigator on a road trip, you’re going to be better at figuring out the map when your estrogen levels are low.”

Although rats provide a decent window into human nature, it would be far too early to conclude that estrogen has either a particularly adverse or advantageous effect on female cognition. However, researchers like Brake and Einstein bring science closer to the answers, one rat at a time.

Watch where you’re driving!

Every 9.6 minutes, a vehicle has a collision. One pedestrian is injured every 4.3 hours, and one cyclist is injured every 8.8 hours, as per the Collision Report 2009 from the City of Toronto. Following another near-death experience while navigating the mean streets on my lowly legs, I started wondering what could be done to make it better. Obviously, the possibility of causing death or bodily harm to others is not enough of a deterrent for drivers to be a little more patient and a little more aware. How many times have you crossed the street at an intersection, obeying the light, only to have cars turn into or in front of you? I always stop when I see a car coming directly at me, which drivers always take as a concession of the right of way. It’s actually more of a “I don’t really feel like getting my legs broken today, but thanks so much for the offer,” than a “Please, go ahead!” but that’s alright.

Education and awareness of road safety are always important. Everybody on the road needs to be careful and follow these rules, as this is not an “us vs them” debate. But I think people know these things, they just choose not to act in accordance with them. Most of the issues with reckless driving involve a lack of common sense as much as they involve not adhering to the Highway Traffic Act. Do not speed. Stop at red lights, stop signs, when streetcar doors are open. Do not drive into people when they have the right of way. So what else can be done? What can serve as an effective reminder? Harsher penalties! More enforcement! Maybe more red-light cameras could also deal with this. Maybe fines could be increased. Maybe the concept of fines is more tangible to some drivers than injuries and deaths. Maybe.
alt text

I have been lucky. Many have not. The City of Toronto Transportation Services website has wonderful reports outlining statistics and specifics of vehicle collisions involving pedestrians, cyclists, and other vehicles, complete with recommendations to make streets safer. The most recent concrete statistics available are from January to March 2010, which state that out of the 557 pedestrian-motor vehicle accidents, 520 resulted in injury and 9 were fatal. 296 were caused by drivers failing to yield the right of way. In the same period there were 127 cyclist-vehicle collisions, 104 resulted in injuries, and 43 of them were drivers who failed to yield the right of way. Of course, that isn’t biking season, so statistics from summer 2009 give a better idea of cyclist-vehicle collisions in the city. Between 120 and 180 accidents happened every month from May to October, with 993 causing injuries out of the total 1,155 accidents reported that year. And those are standard annual statistics. Most accidents happen downtown, during rush hour, and for pedestrians, over the winter months. Police say that when people bundle up, visibility is reduced. This was cited as a possible factor in the November 19 death of a man hit by a streetcar when crossing Spadina. He was the second cyclist and 36th person to die in a collision this year.

All of the reports recommend improvements in infrastructure, education, and enforcement. Although people respond well to enforcement safety campaigns, they fall back into bad habits when the campaigns end. Red light cameras have proven their benefit by reducing collisions by 25 per cent where they are used, and accidents typical of red light running by 60 per cent. Ontario increased the fine for running red lights from $180 to $325 in January 2010, recognizing the importance of treating these offenses seriously. Right now, the penalty for not stopping for open streetcar doors is $20 to $100, disrespecting pedestrians at crosswalks is $150 to $500, “careless driving” is $400 to $2,000, imprisonment, or license suspension, and speeding is at worst $9.75 per km and points from a license. It is true that when accidents happen, serious criminal charges can be brought and the costs are far greater. But there is no dollar value on a life. There is no dollar value on a life of disability and chronic pain. Perhaps cameras and increased fines can do for careless driving and other infractions what they have done for running red lights. In the meantime, let’s all keep our heads up and follow the rules of the road.

Science in brief

Boys of the bottle: Why men are more susceptible to alcoholism

Alcoholism is a disease marked by a physical dependence on alcohol, leading to uncontrolled drinking in spite of serious health and social consequences. Past research suggests that men are twice as likely as women to develop alcoholism within their lifetime, but the reasons for this discrepancy are not well understood.

To address this issue, Dr. Nina Urban and her colleagues from the New York State Psychiatry Institute conducted a study examining how men and women respond to the rewarding effects of alcohol. Since dopamine mediates some of alcohol’s rewarding effects, its release within the brain following alcohol consumption was selected as a marker for the degree of reward experienced.

By measuring the amount of dopamine released in the brain with positron emission topography scans, the researchers found that men’s brains released larger quantities of dopamine than woman following alcohol consumption. This research suggests that men may find alcohol more rewarding than women, which may help to explain why men are at a higher risk of developing alcoholism. — Ken Euler

Source: Elsevier

The Holograph: A new hope

Remember when Princess Leia sent her “Help me Obi-Wan Kenobi, you’re my only hope” message via that crazy, futuristic holographic system? Well, that craziness is no longer reserved for science fiction.

Nasser Peyghambarian and his team from the University of Arizona have created a holograph that can transport a moving 3D image from one location to another in near-real time.

The new device projects a 3D colour image onto a special sheet of plastic using a fast-flashing laser. Unlike past holographic devices, which show only a static image, this can update its image every two seconds, or in less than one second over the Internet, giving the image the appearance of movement.

Bell Labs transmitted the first hologram over a television system in 1966. Since then, the idea of holographic movies has been a hopeful goal, with Stephen Brenton developing the first updatable holographic display at the MIT Media Lab in 1989. This new technique shows promise to advance the development of 3D film, if not at least revolutionise the industry of Star Wars paraphernalia. — Ariel Lewis

Source: Wired Magazine

From Zero to love in 0.2 seconds

To what degree is love biologically based? Newly published results from a multi-national team in the Journal of Sexual Medicine may hold an important piece in the puzzle.

According to Stephanie Ortigue, the study’s chief researcher, falling in love elicits a similar chemical response in the brain to euphoria induced by stimulants such as cocaine in less than a fifth of a second.

While psychologists often define love as a socio-cultural process, the study’s results show that a person who falls in love also activates up to twelve areas of the brain to release euphoric chemicals like adrenaline, dopamine, oxytocin, and vasopressin. These chemicals affect cognitive processes such as social imaging, metaphors, and self-perception.

Love also stimulated blood levels of nerve growth factor, a chemical important in human relations.

The findings ground love on a scientific basis, not only helping to explain the effects of interpersonal relations, but also aiding mental health and neuroscientific research on depression and emotional stress. — Keegan Williams

Source: Science Daily

Tipping the balance between male and female organ development in plants

The duplication of genes and their subsequent ability to take on new roles is regarded as a major driving force of evolutionary change. But how are these new functions acquired and what sorts of effects can they exert? A new study by the University of Leeds suggests that even the slightest adjustment in the coding sequence of a gene following duplication can have a profound influence on its function.

By studying a gene that controls the development of male and female organs in the plant species Arabidopsis (rockcress) and Antirrhinum (snapdragon), the research demonstrated that just a single amino acid change between otherwise identical duplicates can determine whether the gene specifies both male and female organs, or only male ones.

The study thus provides an elegant example of the subtle factors that tip the balance between male and female organ development in flowers, while also highlighting the dramatic changes in function that can stem from the simplest of alterations in a gene. — ED PARKER

Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

Homeless youths most often victims of crime: study led by York U researcher

According to a new report by researchers at York University and the University of Guelph, homeless young people — often perceived as delinquents themselves — are the most vulnerable to violence. The report states that they are victims of crime at rates that society would consider unacceptable for any other group.

The researchers interviewed 244 homeless youths across Toronto about life on the streets. Female street youth, especially lesbians and bisexuals, were more likely than males — 85.9 per cent, compared to 71.8 per cent — to be victims of crime, especially sexual assault. They were also more likely to report extremely high levels of violence and abuse from intimate partners. Most alarmingly, only 20 per cent alerted police about their victimizations.

The report concludes that the solution calls for a balanced response that, instead of relying mostly on emergency services, would balance preventive measures, an emergency response, and transitional support to move young people out of homelessness quickly.

The study was commissioned by Justice for Children and Youth, a not-for-profit clinic providing legal advice and support to homeless youth in Toronto. — Kim Tran

Source: York University