Diamonds are forever

With a new coat of charcoal paint sparkling beneath glimmering spotlights, the Garfield Weston Exhibition Hall in the ROM’s Michael Lee-Chin Crystal oozes class and luxury, a fitting location for the Royal Ontario Museum’s newest exhibit, The Nature of Diamonds. Organized in collaboration with the American Museum of Natural History, The Nature of Diamonds explores the many facets of one of the world’s most alluring gems. This spectacular exhibit will be on display at ROM until March 22, 2009, the only Canadian stop on a North American tour that includes the Houston Museum of Natural Science and Chicago’s Field Museum.

The expansive exhibit is divided into seven sections. “What is Diamond?” discusses the chemical properties of diamonds, including interactive stations like a three-dimensional structural model of the famous gem, and a handgrip that measures the pressure exerted by the user compared to the 80,000 kg of force required to make a diamond.

Other sections focus on the gemstone’s geological origins, providing an explanation of how its unique properties make it an invaluable tool. The “Four C’s” gives patrons a look at the four ways diamonds are evaluated: cut, carat, clarity, and colour.

Canada’s prominence as a diamond-producing region is given a tribute in a video entitled Crystal Clear: Diamonds from Canada’s North. The video will accompany the exhibit on tour, emphasizing Canada’s swift ascent in the industry from the opening of our first diamond mine in 1998, to our current place as the world’s third-largest producer.

In the Historical Galleries, beautiful pieces chronicle the significance of diamonds throughout history and across cultures. Among the most captivating displays are a painting depicting the exchange of diamond engagement rings between Hapsburg Emperor Maximilian I and Mary, Duchess of Burgundy in 1477, and a butterfly brooch made with rose-cut diamonds, an example of the insect motif popular in the late 1800s.

Also on display is the “Tip of the Iceberg” ring designed by independent jeweler Niki Kavakonis. A U of T alum, Kavakonis did her masters and doctoral studies in Art and Architectural History. She used a natural uncut diamond for the ring and embedded it into the metal, forgoing traditional setting techniques. The result is a modern ring with the simple elegance of the Canadian icebergs that inspired it. Ms. Kavakonis’ ingenuity was also reflected in a necklace of her own design. “Ice Floe: Blue Ice” is a rectangular gold pendant with an uncut triangular macle diamond jutting out to one side. The apparent simplicity of the piece is misleading: under UV light the diamond shines bright blue, breaking away from the pendant. In both pieces, Ms. Kavakonis pays tribute to the individuality of the naturally formed diamond crystals.

The much anticipated “Gem Vault” showcases some of the most incredible diamonds from around the world. Included are a rose corsage worn by the niece of Napoleon I and a pendant watch belonging to Catherine II of Russia. At the centre of the vault is the Incomparable Diamond, the third largest cut diamond in the world.

Other highlights are the “Milky Way” necklace and “The Aurora Butterfly of Peace,” which represent the diamond’s wide range of appeal and their captivating beauty.

Canadian designer Dieter Huebner designed the “Milky Way” in collaboration with Brinkhaus Jewelers, winning the DeBeers Diamonds International Award for creative commemoration of the new millennium. Made of exactly 2,000 diamonds set on a platinum frame, the “Milky Way” has an ethereal quality that reflects the majesty of its namesake. “I am captivated by the fire of the diamond,” Mr. Huebner mused. “By fire, I mean its sparkle, its life, the play of the light and the colors of the rainbow.”

“The Aurora Butterfly of Peace” was the result of twelve years of labour on the part of Alan Bronstein and Aurora Gems. The piece resembles a constellation of natural coloured diamonds forming the image of a butterfly. It’s not jewelry—the diamonds aren’t even set in a medium. Yet crowds gather around the case to gaze at the unconventional design. “Seeing a collection of coloured diamonds for the first time,” Mr. Bronstein explains, “is like seeing a rainbow for the first time. It lifts your spirits, even if only for a few seconds, then you go back to daily life. But for that moment, you know there’s more to life—there’s something that can bring happiness.”

Dr. Kimberly Tait, the ROM curator for this exhibit and a U of T professor, says she hopes The Nature of Diamonds will provide to the public a better understanding of the diamond: its explosive beginnings deep beneath the Earth’s surface, the difficult mining processes, and Canada’s growing role in the industry. The exhibit also treats the diamond as not only a favourite trinket and a girl’s best friend, but as a paradigm of beauty and elegance.

Quest for students

Quest University Canada, the country’s newest private university, has not yet reached a quarter of its capacity. Designed for 800 students, the school’s current population is 142, of which 40 per cent are international students. Quest was modeled after elite U.S schools, with tuition at $24,500 a year and teaching methods nearly unrecognizable to U of T students. Private donors have given Quest $100 million, which suggests high expectations, but this has not led to higher enrolment.

Quest students are taught in small classes using a technique called block programming, which allows more direct contact between teachers and students. The average Quest student attends four “blocks,”which focus on one course and last three and a half weeks, in each academic term. A year is made up of two terms, which run in fall, spring and summer. Students can choose the terms they want to attend and accelerate their studies by adding an additional third term.

In the meantime, travel grants are offered to students who want to tour the university. There are blogs and videos available online that highlight different aspects of the school and the option to chat live with an admissions counselor on the Quest website. The university is encouraging its students join in recruiting efforts by going back to their old high schools and bringing back at least one student for the following school year.

Melanie Koenderman, director of student affairs, said in an interview that students are accepted into Quest using a “holistic” approach rather than a high school GPA. Quest applicants must submit a personal essay and complete a personal interview. Extra-curricular activities are also taken into consideration.

Koenderman said extra-curriculars are taken into consideration so that students who may not have excelled academically, but have volunteer experience, are also given a chance.

For those who meeet certain GPA requirements, full scholarships are offered.

Quest’s aim, Koenderman said, is to “produce graduates that can think, communicate, solve problems, work in collaborative environments and make a difference wherever they go.” They just have to fill the seats first.

Projecting Palestine

The first Toronto Palestine Film Festival was held last week, showcasing 37 films as Palestinians commemorate the 60th anniversary of the Nakba. The event featured the theatrical release of Annemarie Jacir’s film Salt of This Sea, starring Suheir Hammad, a Palestinian-American poet, as a Palestinian woman who leaves Brooklyn and travels to her homeland in an attempt to claim her grandfather’s life savings. In a press conference held on the festival’s opening day, Hammad spoke with The Varsity about making her big screen debut.

The Varsity: Why do you think Toronto was chosen as the venue for the film’s release?

Suheir Hammad: I come from the States, and sometimes when you say the word “Palestine,” you have to defend yourself. I am really glad to be in a major city where people understand the story that we ourselves as Palestinians live in so many ways […] and where people who are or are not Palestinian can listen to our accent and look at our hair and see our stories for their weaknesses and their strengths.

TV: Traditionally, Palestinian women have been denied a major role in the country’s film industry. How is this film changing that?

SH: This is the first feature film that has been written and directed by a Palestinian woman, Annemarie Jacir, and in that regard it is worthy of people’s attention because it takes a lot for a woman writer and director to get a feature off the ground.

TV: Were there difficulties making this film in the West Bank and Israel?

SH: We applied for a permit for our entire West Bank crew to travel to the 1948 Israel with us and they were all denied. We were sponsored by the French and North American embassy but every single one of our crew members was denied entry in spite of Israel. So we had to hire a crew in Israel. Annemarie and all of us agreed that we wanted a full Palestinian crew because there are so many Palestinian artists and technicians. We really wanted to make that happen, but when we got there we realized that there was no way. We needed a truck driver, someone with an Israeli license, and the guy [we hired] was not even Jewish—he was a Russian Christian who came to Israel.

TV: The Israeli government forced your crew into shooting certain scenes in France. Can you describe the current conditions of the film industry in Palestine?

SH: It seems that anyone who wants to work in film in Palestine has to leave. Anyone who wants to work in Palestine has to leave, but especially in film, it is very sad how people want to make art there but have to leave. Annemarie has been denied entry into Israel-Palestine since the making of our film, and we actually had a part of the film which was ruined and it was a scene which had to be reshot. She was not allowed re-entry, so we shot that scene in the south of France. Since last June, Annemarie has not been allowed back in. She now lives in Jordan.

TV: You recently launched your fourth book of poetry. Do you plan to pursue an acting career following this project?

SH: I’m a poet, not an actor. It was poetry that allowed me to do this film. I did not have formal training, and the scenes where I really acted are not in the film.

Tarnished Gold

Toronto-based documentary photographer Allan Cedillo Lissner has spent the last two years documenting mining operations by Canadian companies in Tanzania and the Philippines. The resulting photo essay, Someone Else’s Treasure, contains rare visual evidence of the exploits of Barrick Gold, the world’s largest gold mining corporation,. On Wednesday, Lissner took the podium at Hart House and told a group of 30 the stories of communities adjacent to often-hazardous mining operations.

“Just a few metres past the dam, contaminated water—carrying with it cyanide, lead, copper, and mercury—joins together with the clean water coming from the mountain springs into the river system,” said Lissner, describing a photo from the Philippines, where mining sites are often in mountains and contaminate their river systems.

Lissner’s photos exhibited the detrimental effects of these hazardous wastes on the local people. Their stories were filled with sickness, death, destitution and the loss of habitat. Acid mine drainage employs extremely hazardous chemicals, including cyanide, in the extraction of resources. Waste is not properly disposed of and mixes with water that local communities rely on.

The essay included photos of mining activists from Australia, Papa New Guinea, and Chile protesting Barrick Gold’s annual general meeting along with Canadian activists. “Reactions were mixed,” said Lissner. “We were told that one shareholder said that he did not know what the company was doing, and now that he has been informed he will divest his share.”

U of T’s relationship with Peter Munk, former CEO of Barrick Gold, has often been protested on the U of T campus. Munk donated $6 million to found the Centre for International Relations named after him, and has since given another $6 million.

Although U of T’s relationship with Barrick Gold is an important issue, said Paul York, “The main focus is changing the Canadian laws, which requires letting people know what is happening abroad with their tax dollars.” York is a member of the Toronto Mining Support Group, who co-hosted the talk.

York said that Canadian Pension Plan and Ontario Teachers Pension have shares in Barrick Gold, so any Canadian that has a pension is indirectly funding the abuses perpetrated by Barrick.

“The slideshow was the first public showing in Canada of photos of victims of the Bulyanhulu mine in Tanzania, which forced the displacement of approximately 400,000 people,” York said.

“The photos were very sad, yet they also showed the dignity, resilience and persistence of the people in surviving and where possible, opposing this crime against humanity.”

Preaching to the converted

“Religion ought to be like masturbation. It feels good, lots of people do it, yet we all agree public exhibitions are inappropriate.”

This piece of profanity—delivered appropriately on Halloween—comes courtesy of PZ Myers, a self-described “godless liberal” visiting U of T at the invitation of the Ontario chapter of the Centre for Inquiry, an international organization that promotes skepticism, secular humanism, and scientific thought.

An associate professor of biology at the University of Minnesota, Myers has achieved notoriety for his online activities, primarily his award-winning blog Pharyngula which receives upwards of 75,000 visits a day.

To most Canadians, the concept of not teaching evolution in the classrooms seems bizarre; this isn’t the case in the United States.

Like any good scientist, Myers came prepared with data. A recent survey found that only 10 per cent of Americans believe that evolution took place without a deity guiding the process.

Almost 50 per cent reject evolution entirely. But what’s more worrisome to Myers is another survey that showed that 16 per cent of high school instructors share this same notion.

Evolution’s proponents have spent decades blocking the teaching of Creationism through the legal system. But as he observes, “ignoring the culture in which it is embedded is doomed to failure.”

To him, the real target is obvious: religion.

While raised a Lutheran, Myers found it difficult to take key doctrines seriously when preparing for his confirmation. For instance, “if I trust in someone who was killed—but not really killed—then I’ll be forgiven for grandma eating an apple a few thousand years ago?”

He scorns those who find science and religion compatible, seeing it as “epistemically empty and unverifiable.” It represents a competing but inferior way of knowing that must be rooted out of popular culture. This means “a little rudeness is called for.”

Says Myers: “We need to start screaming and yelling and telling these people that they’re nuts.”

A man who practices what he preaches, Myers recently got his hands on a communion wafer, pierced it with a rusty nail, and threw it in the garbage. To demonstrate his impartiality, he also added a ripped copy of the Qur’an and fellow atheist Richard Dawkins’ bestseller, The God Delusion. “Nothing must be held sacred,” he declared.

He received 18,000 outraged emails—before he stopped counting. So strong was the reaction that his university had a dedicated staff member to deal with outraged Catholics calling for his dismissal.

But when some went as far as to call his act worse than the Holocaust, it underscored to him that “religious beliefs are not only silly but deplorable.”

For a personality that evokes such strong reactions on the Internet, Myers’ talk was a rather staid affair. A solitary moment of discord arose when a cry of “we’re here to hear PZ” rang out from an audience member frustrated by the stream of enthusiastic questions that had brought Myers’s talk to a near standstill.

A few angry picketers or at least a tough question or two would have made the evening feel less like a sermon to the congregation.

Perhaps a broader question should be raised: are the right people seeing through the isolated controversies and getting his message?

As Myers sees it, “[fundamentalists] don’t listen to you anyways.” The important thing is to dislodge the complacency of non-believers and force society to “recognize that atheists are willing to fight back.”

Pick a fight’

A crowd of 500 squeezed inside UTSC’s largest lecture theatre to hear the Honourable Louise Arbour speak on human rights last Thursday. The Montreal native, who was the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights until September, gave a speech entitled “All Human Rights for All: A Broken Promise.” Arbour, who was recently named Companion to the Order of Canada, is also a former Supreme Court judge. Her lecture takes place a few months in advance of the 60th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

The evening began with the recount of a journey to Gaza where a factory had been attacked by an Israeli missile, killing one employee, while Arbour was at a meeting across the street. Bitter silence greeted Arbour when she visited the factory to speak to the shaken crowd, and someone threw a stone at her UN vehicle as she left. These workers, Arbour said, are among the people who feel human rights staff have failed them.

Arbour touched on how working for peace can only be done through cooperation, and how equality must be put ahead of past conflicts. Everyone, regardless of nationality, must be held accountable for his or her actions, she said.

The former UN commissioner also spoke of Canada’s reputation as a champion of human rights, and of her experiences in prosecuting war criminals from the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda. Although an overflow room with a projector was set up, scores of students chose to sit on the aisles. During the Q&A period, a student asked how well-meaning but uninformed youth can help. Arbour’s reply was greeted with a resounding applause.

“You cannot be at the forefront of every good fight. I think you have to chose one or two and make them your own,” said Arbour. “Get an education, pick a battle, and support in solidarity all those who are fighting all the other ones that you can’t.”

How polls work

Robert Orben famously mused, “Do you ever get the feeling that the only reason we have elections is to find out if the polls were right?”

In this day of constant polling and the media frenzy caused by the inching of percentages, what focus should there be on the numbers?

“Any one poll probably should not be focused on too much, but the whole series of them as they go along up towards the election can give you a fairly good indication of how things are going to go,” said Nancy Reid, a professor of statistics at the University of Toronto. “Unless you get a real surprise right near the end or something changes quite suddenly[…] then there is a time gap where the polling is not done at the time of that big change.”

The use of statistical methodology maintains the appearance of accuracy. However, a poll sampling 1,000 people results in a built-in margin of error of plus or minus 3.1 percentage points. This means that if a poll places a party’s support at 40 per cent, realistically it is indicative of support that could fall anywhere between 37.9 and 43.1 per cent.

In addition, polls are only considered accurate 19 times out of 20. This means that one out of every 20 polls could be expected to provide results that lie outside the margin of error.

In polling, staticians use samples that accurately reflect the demographic of the country. Though polling companies use random digit dialing—calling landlines at random to get the right number of people—with the widespread use of cell phones, this method is proving ineffective and could skew results.

“People are starting to wonder if [random digit dialing] is going to stick because a lot of younger people just have cell phones, they don’t have a landline anymore. As far as I know they haven’t adapted for that yet,” Reid said.

Errors in polls can also be attributed to the group of voters who refuse to take part. This can result in a sampling bias if the group’s statistics are somehow different.

The National Council on Public Polls Review Board has stated, “In general, the quality of a sample improves the longer the survey is in the field. Surveys conducted on one evening, or even over two days, have more sampling biases—due to non-response and non-availability—than surveys which are in the field for three, four, or five days.”

Accuracy of polls also depends heavily on voters providing truthful answers. According to research conducted on voting behaviour, many people answer less than honestly.

Professor Reid remarked, “This could prove to be a factor in the American elections. It’s been shown people often don’t respond to the polling people honestly on certain questions about race and that can have an impact—especially when you have a black candidate.”

Where pop meets politics

A panel concluding the first Toronto Palestine Film Festival discussed the history of Palestinian cultural resistance through art last Saturday morning. Drawing on Jackie Salloum’s award-winning documentary and festival closer Slingshot Hip Hop, discussion focused on the emergence of new art forms as means of cultural resistance.

Salloum’s film tells the interrelated stories of young Palestinians living in the West Bank, Gaza, and Israel as they discover hip hop as a way to overcome divisions fostered by occupation and poverty.

Based in New York, Salloum is a filmmaker whose pop-infused work focuses on challenging the stereotypes of Arabs in the media. “I chose to merge pop-culture and politics in my work, because there is a fine line where you don’t want to sound preachy. If you hold a sign and scream at peoples faces it’s not very effective […] I started using things people were comfortable with, gumball machines, collages, and toys,” said Salloum.

Sling Shot Hip Hop took nearly four years to develop mainly due to troubles finding financers who were not keen to fund the project about Palestinian struggles excluding their Israeli counterparts.

Rinaldo Walcott, associate professor in the Department of Sociology and Equity Studies in Education at OISE described hip hop’s mobilizing potential. “One of the things that is really interesting about hip hop as an art form, is that every time you think hip hop is dead, it raises its head somewhere else and appears to be relevant again.”

Rafeef Ziadah, who is a PhD candidate in Political Science at York University, cited the Black Consciousness Movement in as a source of inspiration for her own activism. Ziadah, also a local spoken word artist and a well-known Toronto Palestine activist and performer, said Palestinians are fighting for their basic human dignity, through art and culture.