Canada: the international weapons dealer

Prime Minister Stephen Harper’s meeting with the Dalai Lama last month was received warmly by most Canadians, despite stringent objections from the Chinese government. It seemed a subject of national pride that the federal government took a principled stand against the Communist regime noted for its persistent human rights violations, and welcomed a man whose name is virtually synonymous with non-violence.

It should then come as unwelcome surprise to many of us that the Canadian company. a Pratt & Whitney subsidiary, is currently being investigated by the U.S. State Department for possible arms control violations for its Chinese attackhelicopters. Astonishingly, the Canadian government has no plans to conduct an investigation of its own. Even as we applaud our government’s token diplomatic gestures, millions of dollars’ worth of hi-tech military equipment is quietly being made in this country and exported to China and other unsavory regimes.

This most recent demonstration of hypocrisy merely illuminates the secretive nature of Canada’s military industry, which is not being appropriately disclosed to the public. This is a significant liability to a government, whose foreign policy includes support for a new United Nationsled international arms-trade treaty. If Canada secretly exports arms to global hot spots, we lose the moral high ground of condemning other nations for the same activities.

A recent investigation by CBC’s Margo Kelly recently revealed not only the sharp growth in Canadian military exports as of late, but, more troublingly, the federal government’s complete lack of transparency. Embarrassingly, Canada’s current level of divulgence, as measured by the Small Arms Survey, is just slightly ahead of Iran. A lethal combination of corporate greed and bureaucratic red tape raises the troubling possibility that Canadian military technology might be contributing to a number of deadly conflicts around the world.

Over the past seven years, Canadian military exports have increased three-fold, making us the sixth largest arms dealer in the world, just slightly behind China. This growth has nothing to do with the latest Conservative government, as the trend can be observed as far back as 2002. Our self-endearing image as a peacekeeping nation surely requires re-evaluation, for there is a troubling contradiction in preaching global peace while making profits off the instruments of violence.

Canadians should not delude ourselves into thinking we ship military exports only to the most respectable of governments. A quick run through the list of buyers quickly does away with such notions: $527 million in military exports went to Saudi Arabia, a Wahhabist absolute monarchy which imposes severe limitations on the rights of women. Canada has also sold over $17 million in military arms to the Shi’ite-controlled Iraqi government, which is undeniably culpable in that country’s ethnic violence.

As troubling as these examples may appear, they are overshadowed by the nearly $2-billions’ worth of Canadian arms bought by the United States. Night vision goggles, ammunition, missile components, unmanned aerial vehicles, and light-armored vehicles are just some of the equipment Canada sells to the U.S. The very real harm inflicted by these arms—in Iraq and elsewhere— should be obvious to all but the willingly naïve. However, the industry represents about 70,000 technology-based jobs across Canada, and this presents a huge political obstacle in the way of more stringent regulations. Ultimately, we will have to decide whether our growing military exports are in line with our moral values, and whether we are willing to shed a long-held aspect of our national identity.

To market, to market, to buy designer jeans

A Kensington Market relic nearly half a century old, the Augusta Egg Market, closed its doors last month. Not only will shoppers have to satisfy their cravings for duck eggs elsewhere, but another business will fill in the old storefront—and, if recent area trends are any indication, it will be one that caters to an entirely different breed of consumers. As a casual stroll down Augusta will attest, there’s a change in the weather. Gentrification, that nefarious force of urban transformation, is in full swing, and ain’t nobody going to slow it down.

Take the new Blue Banana Market as a forecast of a Kensington to come. Located down the road from the former egg market’s shell, Blue Banana is a glorified, gargantuan, three-storey eyesore of cutesy consumption. Under garish fluorescent lighting, fatwalleted consumers have their pick of world music CDs, touristy “folk art” pieces with unfortunate price tags, and $5 blocks of fudge. The warehouse would fit nicely in Yorkville or the Distillery District, but Kensington? Who exactly do they think they are?

There’s also the fancy-schmancy vegan sandwich shop on the corner of Augusta and Oxford (where $10 will almost satiate your hunger), and a few doors down, the upscale French bistro owned by—surprise!—none other than Shamez Amlani, the populist King of Kensington himself. While these places aren’t among the newest crop of luxurious market stops, they have nevertheless established themselves as pioneering fixtures of a palpable movement.

Though Augusta Street is becoming a veritable smorgasbord of Yuppie attraction, the rest of the marketplace is barely half a step behind. Remember Planet Kensington, that crusty metalhead dive on Baldwin? Well, its former locale is now home to the Freshwood Grill, a “fresh, local, organic” eatery that’s almost so classy it’s insulting. COBS Breads, another recent franchise addition to Kensington’s Baldwin strip, greets passers-by with a similar dose of wholesome-meetsposh audacity. With places like these popping up left and right, how can people expect to preserve the roughedged appeal of the old market?

It’s hard to replicate the past. Yet much of Kensington’s charm has rested upon its uncanny ability to do just that, by sustaining yesteryear’s alternative to the pedestrian strip mall, maintaining cozy produce stalls and small, specialized businesses. The market’s unique atmosphere is a legacy of its history, the remnant of enterprising immigrant residents who set up shop in front of their homes as a way of making ends meet. The area sprung organically into the residential and commercial hodgepodge through the initiatives of its dwellers, not voracious city planners, architects, or entrepreneurs trying to anticipate the next “hip” thing.

Nevertheless, Kensington has become just that—a viable commercial hot spot in a convenient location, cherished by artists, students, and most importantly, moneyed folks who consider themselves cultured. The area’s many mid-century immigrant homeowners are beginning to vacate the premises and, naturally, developers have their eyes on the prize. Kensington Lofts, a box of upscale condos that a Toronto real estate website flaunts as “a chic alternative to the quaint houses in the area,” likely won’t be the market’s sole housing cash-cow for very much longer; similar projects are already tentatively in the works.

True, Kensington has always been a site of metamorphosis, having made the transformation from its “Jewish Market” roots in the early 1900s to its mid-century incarnation as a Portuguese immigrant neighbourhood to, eventually, the multicultural enclave we know today. What these various embodiments all have in common is the unpretentious working-class spirit that gentrification threatens to overrun. This, above all else, is the entity most seriously at stake.

Meanwhile, the front window of the former Augusta Egg Market is still heralding a “For Lease” sign, and though I’m hoping that a worthy contender will replace it, I’m not counting my chickens before they hatch.

Blending into the background for survival

A close examination of animal processes reveals that defence mechanisms and predatory tactics are pivotal parts of ecosystem dynamics. These predator-prey relationships, sometimes amounting to an evolutionary arms race, have resulted in some interesting adaptations: animal mimicry, camouflage, and scare tactics that are often ingenious and sometimes downright spooky.

Mimicry can take two forms in the wild. Batesian mimicry occurs when a harmless organism copies a toxic species. The other kind, Mullerian, occurs when two equally toxic species mimic each other to the benefit of both.

Monarch and Viceroy butterflies are common examples of Batesian mimicry. The Monarch butterfly consumes milk thistle, which contains poisonous and foul-tasting glycosides, thus making Monarchs rather unpalatable for many predators. They advertise this feature by way of a brightly coloured wing display. The Viceroy butterfly has evolved a remarkably similar appearance— most likely due to passive natural selection—which greatly reduces predation.

In a natural environment, mimicry is less of a conscious strategy than a process of elimination. Organisms without a blatant toxic appearance are consumed, leaving only “mimics” in the gene pool.

But mimicry is not limited to sensory mechanisms. Some species display rational deployment of mimicry as a means of adaptation to specific circumstances. The Indo-Malaysian Octopus is a good example, having the ability to selectively alter its form, shape, color, and behaviour to imitate a wide range of organisms. The octopus can emulate a sole fish and a highly venomous sea-snake with equal adeptness. Whether a function of evolutionary elimination or simply a conscious choice, biomimicry is a common tendency of many successful species.

Self-mimicry is also used for selfdefence. Animals may have body parts that mimic another to increase chances of survival during an attack, or adaptations that can help deter predators. Many moths, butterflies, and freshwater fish species have eyespots, dark markings that momentarily startle a predator and give prey extra time to react. For example, attacks to a moth’s outer wing are less likely to be fatal or detrimental.

Less often, predators utilize selfmimicry, making themselves appear less threatening than they really are. In southeast Asia, several turtle species and the Frogmouth Catfish use tongue extensions to lure prey. Another type of self-mimicry is the Central African “two-headed” snake, which has a virtually indistinguishable tail and head. This snake moves its tail in the way most snakes move their heads, thus confusing prey about the origin of the attack.

There are many examples of rainforest species showcasing cryptic colouration to match their surroundings. This camouflage poses obvious and useful advantages. As well, certain organisms seek to look inanimate or inedible to avoid detection by predators. The Uroplatus geckos of Madagascar are incredibly talented at blending in with the colors of their surroundings, as are katydids, a group of grasshopper- like insects. Katydids are nocturnal insects that use their green, leaflike bodies to remain unnoticed during the day, a time when they are inactive and otherwise defenseless. Another example is the electric blue Morpho, a butterfly found in many rainforests, with iridescent blue upper wings and a seven-inch wingspan. As the Morpho flies through the flickering light of the forest, or even out in broad daylight, it seems to disappear into its surroundings. Similarly, some forest-dwelling species have spots or stripes to help break up the animal’s outline in the view of potential prey. Large mammals like leopards, jaguars, ocelots, and okapi are surprisingly difficult to spot because of their colouration under the shade of the jungle canopy.

Adaptations are undoubtedly useful mechanisms, employed by many organisms to ensure survival, including humans. After all, camouflage jackets are used by soldiers in combat so that enemy fighters have difficulty spotting them. Through millions of years of natural selection and evolution, nature came up with these tactics first—and we have now mimicked it.

Exposing skeletons in the closet—literally

Recently, an almost complete *Barosaurus skeleton *was uncovered in the Royal Ontario Museum’s personal collection by Dr. David Evans, associate curator of vertebrate paleontology. Estimated to have weighed 15 tonnes when alive, the skeleton will be 24 to 27 metres in length when assembled. The dinosaur will be shown in the second floor of the Michael Lee Chin Crystal starting in mid-December as part of the new Age of Dinosaurs Gallery.

The story of the skeleton’s discovery is certainly an odd—although fortunate— one. Evans was searching for a sauropod (the largest of the dinosaurs) to be the centerpiece of the new exhibit along with the Tyrannosaurus rex, Stegosaurus, and Triceratops skeletons that the museum already owns. As it turns out, the ROM received the bones as part of a trade with the Carnegie Museum in 1962. Dr. Gordon Edmund arranged the exchange of two duck-billed dinosaurs and other items for the Barosaurus— originally thought to be a Diplodocus. The skeleton was supposed to be displayed in 1970 after renovations were made to the ROM, but there was insufficient space. Edmund retired in 1990 and the bones were separated and stored in several different drawers, forgotten by the curatorial staff.

Evans came across an article by Jack McIntosh—a famous sauropod expert— on a recent trip to Wyoming. In the piece, Evans noticed a reference to a Barosaurus skeleton located at the ROM. Although unlisted in the museum’s database, he managed to track down the various pieces of the dinosaur skeleton and uncovered a nearly complete specimen. The lucky find solved the problem of having to purchase or excavate a skeleton for the upcoming exhibition.

“We were searching for an iconic sauropod skeleton, and we had one under our noses the whole time. When all the parts were pulled together, we realized just how much of the animal the ROM actually had—the better part of a skeleton of a rare, giant dinosaur,” said Evans.

Once assembled, the Barosaurus— nicknamed Gordo in honour of Dr. Edmund— will be the largest dinosaur on display in Canada. The late-Jurassicperiod creature lived 150 million years ago on the North American continent. The American Museum of Natural History owns the only other full Barosaurus skeleton in the world. The Barosaurus is unique among sauropods for its extremely long neck relative to its body. The Carnagie Museum unearthed the ROM’s specimen in Utah’s Dinosaur National Monument in the early 1900s.

Who knows what will be discovered during spring cleaning next year? Opening weekend for the James and Louise Temerty Galleries of the Age of Dinosaurs begins December 15.

New cells good listeners

Our generation might be notorious for not listening to its elders, but our brain cells never stopped listening to theirs. Scientists at Yale University recently discovered that newly synthesized neurons in our brains “listen” to older neurons before they send out their own impulses. In other words, brain cells listen before they speak.

Past studies have showed that the regions of the brain produce new neurons and incorporate them into the existing brain circuitry. The mechanism behind this function of activity was not known until the Yale School of Medicine made this most recent discovery.

A team of researchers led by Charles Greer, professor of neurosurgery and neurobiology at Yale, discovered that new brain cells take time to mature. New synaptic connections in a brain cell are not made until 21 days after the cell’s birth. In the meantime, the cell receives signals from others, ensuring that these new brain cells do not disturb ongoing signals in the brain.

The team studied the olfactory bulb, a part of the brain associated with the perception of odours, in order to find the mechanism by which new brain cells are incorporated into existing brain circuitry. They found that new neurons receive signals from parts of the brain for up to 10 days. During this period, these neurons do not generate their own signals. It takes these neurons six to eight weeks to mature, during which period they are monitored by signals from other brain cells.

This finding has important implications for the use of stem cells to cure neurodegenerative diseases. This mechanism implies that newly synthesized neurons from stem cells will not interfere with ongoing brain signaling until the stem cells mature. Said Greer: “If we want to use stem cells to replace neurons lost to injury or disease, we must ensure that they do not fire inappropriately, which could cause seizures or cognitive dysfunction.”

How to dismantle conflicts abroad

Michael Ignatieff gave a simplified picture of a successful military intervention at a discussion about the often-controversial Responsibility to Protect policy with Janice Stein at the Munk Center on Monday.

“We have to take sides in what is usually an ongoing civil conflict ” said Ignatieff. “Let us remember Bosnia, 1994-5. We put the Croats together with the Muslims, armed the Muslims, made them stronger, pushed back the Serbs, and at a decisive moment, rained air power on the Serbs, forcing them to the table.”

The next example was Kosovo. “We intervened to make one side prevail.” The West did not want Melosovic to continue his war in the Balkans because this would fracture Europe, so they intervened to make one side win.”

Ignatieff said it was painful to watch the Serbs flee. But in intervention, he said, the interplay of means and ends were as complex as the politics involved. “You may not like [the means], but nobody’s died in Bosnia since.”

He spoke not as a the Liberal deputy leader but as a former commissioner on the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty, an ad hoc organization that promotes humanitarian intervention. Ignatieff’s talk began with the “very unpopular notion” of preemptive war that the commission’s R2P policy is about.

Ignatieff recalled a meeting of the ICISS in Brussels that determined R2P did not apply to the terrorist threat behind the Sept. 11 attacks, not only because the policy is preemptive, but also because it involves threats abroad rather that at home.

Armed intervention in Kosovo and Bosnia was justifiable, Ignatieff said, because there had been a “just cause, legitimate authority, right intention, reasonable prospects, proportional means and last resort.”

The conflict in post-Sept. 11 Af- ghanistan, though not considered a case for R2P, fits the “just war” principle, invented by Saint Augustine. He stressed that the principle, which requires that a war be fought justly, “with one hand behind their backs.” even when the enemy followed no rules or wore no uniforms, should be followed in whatever actions Coalition forces there take.

Ignatieff aimed to show that the intervention in Afghanistan meets all of the just war criteria. He said there was adherence to a just authority, namely UN approval. It was a last resort, he added, because the U.S. had already been attacked. He saw trouble, however, in the Coalition assertion that the armed reaction was proportional to the threat posed by Afghanistan. “Those are acute moral issues which all citizens ought to be concerned about,” he said.

Ignatieff invoked another of St. Augustine’s concepts, the “reasonable prospect” principle. This is a jus ad bellum criterion, meaning it is to be considered before the use of force. Under the principle, use of force cannot be condoned unless it has a reasonable chance of succeeding in its goal.

“Reasonable prospect is something we’re in fact debating now when we think about whether to extend this mission [in Afghanistan].”

On the subject of a global leadership, he was asked whether “we need a (hopefully) liberal hegemony who can define the order and then police it,” Ignatieff clarified, however, that a hegemony was not what he wanted to live under. That in fact he did not want a liberal hegemony at all. Ignatieff envisioned a multipolar world, with power distributed across many centres worldwide.

Back in the groove

There’s a major comeback underway in the music industry, and I’m not talking about the Backstreet Boys’ latest sonic atrocity. With the commercial advent of the compact disc back in 1982, pretty much everybody expected that vinyl records were finally on their way out of the mainstream and into the history books. And while vinyl did suffer at the hands of new digital formats, the gramophone record has refused to die, and is now once again on the rise.

In an interesting twist, the compact disc may now be in danger of becoming obsolete. Now, when most people buy a CD, the first thing they do is slip the disc into their computer and import the songs into a music management program like iTunes. The next step sees the compressed song files transferred to an MP3 player for listening on the go. Just like that, in about three minutes, the job of the CD is finished completely. The disc and jewel case just sit around collecting dust.

So with the adoption of digital music players, and the personal-computer-as-your-stereo trend, the role of the once-mighty compact has been reduced to that of a temporary container, a way to transport music from the shelf at HMV back to your PC at home. In that case, why not just download the music instead (legally, or otherwise), and save yourself the trip to the mall?

This is the revelation that more and more music buyers are having everyday. Traditional music retailers have also realized this, which is why they’re either closing up shop (like Sam the Record Man) or devoting an ever-increasing amount of shelf space to hawking DVDs, video games, and electronics.

As new technology forces the whole paradigm of music consumerism into weird, uncharted territory, some record labels are now trying to stake out a new middle ground between the CD and the 99-cent download. A good example is EMI/Parlophone, who recently made their deceptively timed Radiohead box set—not to be confused with Radiohead’s own box set of their brilliant new independent release In Rainbows—available on a customized USB key (ironically in the shape of Kid A’s greedy-looking, killer teddy bears). This choice highlights not only the fact that CDs are now viewed as glorified file-transfer devices, but also touches on one of the downsides of downloading: the lack of a tangible artifact to accompany the purchase.

A lot of people really like collecting music in an easily discernable form, just to have a copy of the album artwork, or to feel they have a real connection to the band or artist. Amongst people who enjoy music the most—audiophiles, DJs, nerdy fans, and collectors— vinyl records are actually making a comeback as the tangible companion to digital downloads, compared to the sliding sales of compact discs.

The long and resilient history of the gramophone record should humble those who thought the format dead and gone. Only the third major music format ever invented, the record made its predecessor, the phonograph cylinder, obsolete way back in 1929, became commercially available as vinyl in 1948, and later successfully fought off format coups by reel-to-reel tape and the campy eight-track. With the introduction of the compact disc, it looked like the end of the line for vinyl records, but even before digital formats began to threaten the CD, a protective niche emerged. Audiophiles claimed that CDs sounded too sharp and tinny (likely caused by vinyl mastering techniques being used to prepare music for CDs), and preferred the warmer, fuller sound of records. At the same time, professional DJs relied on their ability to directly manipulate the sound source on a record to slip-cue, beatmatch, and scratch—something which wasn’t even possible (let alone stylish) with CDs until the recent invention of CDJ technology. So while compact discs took over the store shelves, the vinyl presses kept running— albeit in a much more limited capacity.

The 1990s saw another niche take an interest in vinyl: independent artists and record labels. While electronic, hip-hop, and dance artists still continued to issue some vinyl for DJ purposes, mainstream rock music was largely relegated to compact disc and cassette tape. Luckily, punk and hardcore bands still had an affinity for pressing seven-inch records, and as punk music merged with indie-rock styles in the American mid-west during the early nineties, this tradition endured, and flourished in indie culture.

All of this created the necessary groundwork for an emerging trend: the people buying the most vinyl in today’s resurgence are the young music fans, not the old and nostalgic. Indie labels convinced a whole new generation to adopt this seemingly defunct technology. These young consumers are attracted the classic design of records, their aforementioned sound quality, and a considerable “retro cool” factor. Bands also like to have their music released on vinyl, and many of them see it as a badge of honour to have their music cut into a hot slab of wax.

What’s really interesting are the many ways vinyl and digital are teaming up to cut CDs out of the loop. Indie bands and labels—major labels have largely slept on the vinyl resurgence— now often issue free digital downloads with the purchase of a vinyl record. For example, when local indie-label Dead Astronaut released a split 12-inch featuring music by militant post-punk outfits Anagram and Creeping Nobodies, they also included a slip of paper with a secret URL, username, and password that the customer could use to download high-quality MP3s of the record.

But leave it to DJs to find the ultimate combination of vinyl and digital. On the market for about three years, programs like Scratch Live by New Zealand software company Serato Audio Research, allow DJs to combine the control of vinyl with the ease of selecting and editing tracks in a digital environment. The setup includes two classic turntables, a laptop, the DJ software, and two specially-printed, time-coded vinyl records. Once the two records are spinning on the turntables, the DJ can manipulate digital audio files stored on their laptop using the time-coded vinyls as controllers— just as if the music on the hard drive was actually on the record.

So while CDs aren’t down-and-out just yet, vinyl’s numbers are clearly on the rise. According to the Recording Industry Association of America, vinyl sales have doubled as the percentage of music sales since 2000, to become a $110- million industry. In that same time period, overall music sales have dropped from $14.4 billion to $12.2 billon. Conversely, according to figures from the British Phonographic Industry, the number of seven-inch singles sold rose from just under 179,000 in 2001 to over a million in 2006, marking the first time seven-inch sales reached that figure in the U.K. since 1998.

With high-quality MP3s (that never skip) and software like iTunes quickly surpassing the utility of compact discs amongst casual music listeners, and with audiophiles and hardcore fans taking a newfound interest in the classic, analogue world of vinyl, the CD’s days could be numbered, and the biggest twist in the audio format wars could already be in play.

Cut-off grads seek CUPE counsel

A massive expansion of graduate schools, spurred by a provincial decision, is leaving some of U of T’s most senior graduate students crowded out. The university greatly expanded its graduate enrolment this year, upping enrolment by about 30 per cent. Budget tightness has forced at least one department to take jobs from their PhD students and give them to a large new cohort of masters students.

U of T guarantees funding to all graduate students during the first year of a master’s program and the first four years of doctoral studies, or for the first five years of a doctoral program. Students who earn their PhD within five years are a rarity, and those outside the five-year guarantee often rely on teaching and teaching assistant jobs to make ends meet.

CUPE 3902, which represent TAs at the U of T, has filed a grievance with the Department of Anthropology on behalf of upper-year PhD students. The grievance claims the department violated at least four sections of the collective agreement between CUPE and U of T regarding TA hiring preference, job advertisement, rehiring, and “equitable and consistent” adherence to the agreement.

“We don’t blame [the Department of Anthropology], they’re only getting what they get handed down from the Dean of Arts and Science and the Provost,” said CUPE staff representative Mikael Swayze, who called the huge grad surge an “adventure,” being unprecedented and therefore hard to judge.

The McGuinty government has called for universities provincewide to expand their graduate schools, and set funding incentives to encourage schools to meet expansion targets. The current graduate expansion follows a period of great undergraduate growth prompted by the double-cohort.

Swayze noted that CUPE would have filed the grievance earlier but a server crash affecting the union’s email records caused a three-week delay.

So far, Anthropology is the only department with students filing grievances through CUPE, but Swayze said he has heard “rumblings” from others. Typically, individual students may take a long time to discuss their situations with other students and realize they share a common, systemic problem, he said.

Classes will not be disrupted during the grievance process, Swayze said.

The Department of Anthropology must respond to the complaint by next Friday. If they do not or cannot address the grievance to CUPE’s satisfaction, the union will go to the Dean of Arts & Science, then the university’s VP human resources, Angela Hildyard. If no satisfactory outcome is reached, the issue could go before an arbitrator for a binding resolution.

At press time, Dr. Janice Boddy, chair of the anthropology department, could not be reached for comment. The graduate program administrator, Natalia Krencil, was away from office due to illness, and graduate program coordinator Dr. Daniel Sellen was traveling and not reachable for comment. Asked to comment by The Varsity, Roger Bulgin, department manager for anthropology, said the issue had just been brought to his attention and he was not prepared to comment.

Swayze added that the grievance, when resolved, will not cost any of the current MA students their TAships, though he said next year the TA hours should be re-allotted to fit the collective bargaining agreement.

“The union is not in the business of getting people out of work,” he assured The Varsity.