Third dime’s a charm, hopes a critic with CFs in his sights

Gregory would tell you to be persistent. After twice trying to force the Canadian Federation of Students to admit to mismanagement, Gregory has called on CFS national chairperson Amanda Aziz to accept a motion condemning her organization’s executive board.

The 38-point motion, largely authored by Gregory, moves to censure CFS’s national decisionmaking board and impose strict limitations on its powers to grant “extraordinary loans.”

Last year, Gregory was influential in unseating seven student council executives at Vancouver’s Simon Fraser University, where he was a student. Now working for the Kwantlen Student Association at Kwantlen University College on BC’s lower mainland, Gregory is spearheading an attack on CFS, of which KSA is a member.

KSA has twice tried to force a vote at CFS’s National General Meeting to censure the federation’s national executive board over a series of unsecured or shoddily documented loans amounting to over $600,000, handed out by CFS and CFS’s British Columbia wing in 2005 to prop up an ailing and mismanaged member union.

The Douglas Students’ Union of BC’s Douglas College, failed to conduct audits of its finances during 2002-2005. BC’s College and Institute Act requires unions to have accounting specialists check their books annually and inform their members of the results. Because of this, Douglas College’s Board of Governors cut off DSU’s funding, effectively paralyzing the union.

CFS-BC and CFS-National’s Services division lent the union a total of $614,000 to pay its health and dental dues, without proper documentation.

DSU commissioned a forensic audit of its finances but later criticized the audit. “The auditor failed to interview key DSU board members, including the individuals who served as the DSU treasurer and board chair during the time the auditor focused on the review,” said DSU finance and services coordinator Joey Hansen.

The audit strongly chastised Hansen over DSU’s disorganized books and Hansen’s role in a loan of $20,000 granted by DSU to Hansen’s girlfriend Christa Peters.

Running out of self-control

Attempting to achieve more than one goal at once—be it losing weight, studying for exams, quitting smoking, or hitting the gym—may not be a good idea. These tasks require self-control, an essential but limited resource.

A new study led by Dr. Michael Inzlicht, an assistant professor of psychology at the University of Toronto Scarborough, explores how exercising self-control for too long depletes the brain. Forty students from the Scarborough campus were divided into two groups and asked to perform two unrelated tasks involving self-control. For the first task, both groups were shown the same two movie clips depicting animals in distress or close to death. One group was asked to suppress their emotions while the other group was instructed only to watch the clips.

Shortly following the movie, the participants were asked to perform the ‘Stroop task’: the words red and green were displayed in either red or green font. Participants were told to identify the font colour, not to read the word itself. For both tasks, all participants wore an electrode cap to record their brain activity (EEG or electroencephalographic recording).

The study found that participants who suppressed their emotions during the first task performed poorly during the second task. Additionally, this poor performance corresponded to decreased brain activity in the cingular cortex, the part of the brain that monitors a person’s intention to achieve a goal.

Inzlicht explained, “If you have already used self-control in a previous task, then the cingular cortex gets tired. For example, if you then try to eat a french fry it won’t tell you not to.” Inzlicht continued, “When you work out a muscle it becomes tired. It will be tired and you won’t be able to function as you did beforehand.” When the cortex is worn-out, it cannot function as usual, depleting a person’s self-control over, for example, eating that french fry.

Inzlicht offered a take-home message for students. “If you’re studying for an exam (for example) and you’re a smoker, it wouldn’t be the best idea for you to try to quit smoking during exam period. It is difficult to stop smoking because it requires a level of self-control, as does studying. Self-control is limited, so when we use self-control to stop smoking it will be hard to study for our exams.”

His research study, entitled “Running on Empty: Neural Signals for Self-Control Failure” appeared in the November 2007 issue of Psychological Science.

The study expands on previous knowledge that self-control is a limited and essential resource. Experiments similar to the one preformed by Inzlicht determined that tasks requiring intentional and controlled actions exhaust this central resource. But it was not known what brain processes were involved or that the cingular cortex is always active and, therefore, gets tired.

Further research may look into the psychological level of self-control. For example, a person who manages to achieve their goals is likely to possess intrinsic motivation. Or, it may look more closely at the cingular cortex of the brain with respect to dopamine. It has been previously determined that the cortex is responsive to this chemical, a hormone that is often associated with feelings of enjoyment and motivation.

Pay attention to the things that matter and don’t waste that limited self-control on pointless goals. Maybe quitting smoking would be a good start—but wait until January, perhaps.

PETA picks U of T in nationwide vegan vote

When it comes to alternative food options, it’s quality, not quantity that matters. At least, that’s the message from PETA, who declared the University of Toronto Canada’s most vegetarian- friendly campus on the strength of a few delectable but hard-to-find meals served here.

Representatives from PETA2, the university and college wing of the avid animal rights group, will visit New College next week to serve up the award-winning dishes and talk with students.

PETA2 held an online poll in which approximately 10,000 votes were cast. Voters (presumed to be students) chose their favourite dishes from a short list of food options offered at 10 schools, which PETA compiled using student recommendations and talks with the schools’ administration.

Out of 10 nominees, U of T topped the list of vegetarian-friendly schools in Canada, beating out Mc- Master, UBC, the University of Victoria, and Trent.

“At every meal, [U of T] is proving that keeping fit, trim, and healthy. And helping animals at the same time—has never been easier,” said Dab Shannon, the assistant director for PETA2.

A PETA2 press release praised U of T for its efforts to meet the challenge of providing vegetarian options to a student population of more than 63,000. They especially applauded the work of the student group U of T Coalition for Animal Rights and the Environment. UTCARE helps offer vegan lasagna, rosemary vegetable ragout, and tofu cacciatore on campus.

U of T’s vegetarian food options are found at various college cafeterias, supplied by Aramark. Student initiatives are also doing their part in creating a vegetarian and environmentfriendly atmosphere on campus.

The Hot Yam, a vegan restaurant run out of the International Student Center every Wednesday, serves up a healthy, animal-free lunch. The Hot Yam is a haven for the vegan and ecologically-conscious: many students bring their own dishes and Tupperware. The eatery revived vegetarianism at the ISC after the sudden shutdown of Radical Roots last May. Radical Roots operated at midday five days a week. It closed amid outcry from its volunteer staff that administrators had conspired to oust them from their space. They had planned to greatly expand Radical Roots’ capacity and hours of operation, The Varsity reported at the time.

Its spiritual heir, the Hot Yam, provides a weekly alternative to those looking beyond the nearest cafeteria.

Trade talk heats up prior to winter meetings

With the annual Major League Baseball winter meetings only two short weeks away, what better time to start talking about the hot rumours that circulate around baseball? Forget Barry Bonds and the controversy surrounding his indictment. We’re interested in stories about those big-time free agents, potential trades, and re-signings, and how they will affect what happens on the field.

New York Yankees

Any discussion about spending money during the baseball off-season begins with the evil empire, the New York Yankees. Right now the biggest name in Yankeeland is Alex Rodriguez. It did not sit well with fans, reporters, and owners when A-Rod and agent Scott Boras tried to make themselves bigger than the World Series by announcing during game four, a series-clinching game, that A-Rod is opting out of his contract. General managers have called Boras’ marketing of A-Rod at $30 million a season a ridiculous bluff, as talks between Boras and any team interested in A-Rod’s services have ceased. That’s why A-Rod sat down with the Yankees about signing a deal to stay in the Bronx. The result ended in another record-breaking deal for the recently announced MVP, now signed with the Yankees for $275 million over 10 years. New York has retained the services of arguably the best player in baseball, a man that, in the long term, will be box office gold, a likely home run king.

Boston Red Sox

The other big spender during the off season, the Boston Red Sox, was able to lock up its big-time third baseman, World Series MVP Mike Lowell, for $37.5 million over three years. This may not be good news for fans. Lowell, while very talented, tends to perform only in a contract year. This same trend has followed him on his way to Boston. Lowell’s numbers last year were pretty good, but they’re nothing like the astronomical figures he was putting up this year—while in a contract. Red Sox fans, be wary. Mike Lowell may not be as great as you think he is.

Centre of attention

There is an even more intriguing race going on between multiple teams for three big centre fielders up for grabs this off-season: Andrew Jones, Torii Hunter, and Aaron Rowand. The Dodgers are rumoured to be looking at all three since the team is looking to upgrade Juan Pierre in centre. In all likelihood the Dodgers won’t be able to go after Hunter, since it seems he has his mind set on Texas. Hunter has gone and met with Rangers owner Tom Hicks, now both sides must come to an agreement.

Blue Jays flying below the radar

How does all this bode for the Toronto Blue Jays? Well, given how we just picked up utility infielder Marco Scutaro from the A’s for two pitching prospects, it seems like the Jays won’t be making much noise at the winter meetings.

Orlando heads to Chicago

In an extremely puzzling move, the LA Angels have traded star shortstop Orlando Cabrera to the Chicago White Sox for starter Jon Garland. It’s a questionable move on the Angels’ part because Orlando Cabrera is a top tier shortstop in the league, and Jon Garland is considered only a solid starter at best. So it would seem that the White Sox got away with a steal.

Big fish being dangled

In trade rumours there is one name that keeps popping up, Miguel Cabrera. The 24-year-old third baseman seems to be priced out of the Marlins’ reach. Thus, the Marlins are doing what they always do, putting their best guys up for sale for young prospects. As Alex Rodriguez and Mike Lowell are now locked up with their respective teams, Cabrera is far and away the best option available at third. A reported eight teams are hunting Cabrera, with the Angels and Dodgers as front runners.

How well does U of T cater to students with special diets like vegetarian, Halal, or nut-free?

From left to right

Grady Johnson, 4th year Economics and Political Science

I mean, you can be a vegetarian on campus if you want to have salad everyday, but in my experience the selection’s pretty limited. It’s not like you can have a tofu dish or anything. I have much more faith in student-run things like Diabolo’s or the Hot Yam in the International Student Center than the franchises.

Taina Wong , 4th year English and Political Science

There’s a lot of franchise stuff—U of T doesn’t really specialize in anything for students. People with allergies to things like nuts—there’s nothing really specialized for them on campus. Student run things [like Diabolo’s and the Hot Yam] seem to be much more sensitive to these kinds of needs.

Baharak Zarbafian, ’07 Commerce alumni

I think they can do better. There’s only one vegan place on campus. It’s unfair to those who have class at St. Mike’s or Vic because it’s a 20-minute walk across campus. When Ramadan happened, restaurants closed at 7:00 p.m. even though fasts ended at 7:30 p.m. If you live on campus and have a meal plan, then for an entire month you can’t really eat on residence and you can’t use your money.

We shouldn’t have to fight for our education

Last week, in an extraordinary display of protest, university students took over Montreal’s streets, highways, and public buildings, and even occupied the Quebec premier’s Sherbrooke riding office. The students, who were eventually dispersed by pepper spray and tasers, were protesting the $50 per semester rise in tuition fees that the province has imposed upon its students, an increase made worse by an accompanying $100 million cut to bursaries. The fee hike and bursary cut was surprising news in a province that has long boasted the lowest tuition fees in Canada. It’s no wonder that Montreal students are fighting tooth and nail against the fee increase. More than 100 were arrested.

Judging by the results (or rather, the lack thereof) of the National Day of Action rally that Ontario post-secondary students held on a bitterly cold February day earlier this year, many might think that these mass protests and the resulting injuries and arrests are not worth the trouble. Despite our best efforst, a whole generation of students will likely be trapped in debt and financial misery in order to fund an education that should be a right, not a privilege, in a wealthy country like Canada. Yet students in most provinces are contending with ever-increasing fees and shrinking financial aid every year. And now Quebec, which was previously held up as a model for accessible education, is now following suit.

It is ironic that in Canada, where future economic growth is highly dependant on a knowledgeable and technically skilled workforce, higher education has been made into an inaccessible dream for so many. Countless studies have proven that a college or university grad will make $1 million more in their lifetime than a high school grad. A higher education ensures more productivity in a knowledge-based economy, which leads to a higher income, which in turn leads to a higher standard of living for Canadian citizens, ultimately fueling further economic growth. Yet policy makers who increase tuition fees while simultaneously slashing student aid seem not to recognize this close relation between economic growth and accessible higher education.

Little wonder that Montreal students have walked out of their classes (in midterm season too!) in the hopes that someone up there will take note of their plight. If students do not take serious action en masse that gains the sympathy of the general public and the media, then policy- makers will believe their unjust policies against students are being quietly accepted. This sets a dangerous precedent for further cuts to financial aid and tuition fee increases in the future, without any worry about repercussions from students and their supporters.

It is unfortunate that in a democratic society, where politicians can only remain in power so long as their policies satisfy voters, students have to shout as loud as they can, risking violence, arrest and injury in order to get policy-makers to pay attention to their needs.

Off with its head!

After reducing the Goods and Services Tax by a percentage point last year, Prime Minister Stephen Harper recently announced his resolution to drop the unpopular tax down to five per cent, effective the first day of 2008.

Harper’s decision is the latest evidence of the paradoxical policy shift between the two main Canadian parties on the GST issue. Harper’s Conservative Party, whose predecessors launched the GST during the Mulroney years, is now hastily dismantling this unpopular tax. Dion’s Liberals, who promised to rid Canadians of the GST during Chrétien’s first term, are currently defending it.

Tory Finance Minister Jim Flaherty said that the cut would encourage greater spending, which in turn would stimulate the economy and generate GST revenue via increased consumption. But what does this mean to the average taxpayer?

For starters, there will be considerable savings for homeowners: a family can save over $5,000 if they buy a new $300,000 home next January. A two per cent cut would save a shopper some $500 on the purchase of a new $25,000 vehicle. The more expensive the item, the more money one can save. Considering that the national economy is so heavily dependent on exports to the United States—and the rise of the Canadian dollar has suddenly made Canadian products less affordable—policy aimed at increasing consumption of local goods isn’t a bad idea, economically speaking. When the government cuts expenditures and taxpayers increase consumption, the result is typically neutral in the big picture.

Critics decry the loss of billions in tax dollars that could be used for social funding. The flip side is that regressive multi-level value-added taxes, like the GST, are a burden to low-income Canadians. Individuals in the lower economic strata tend to spend more of what they earn—thus paying more in sales tax as a proportion of their net income—than those at the top. The tax burden has become more and more regressive over the past two decades: the poor now shoulder a larger proportion of the tax load compared to the 1980s, and the main culprit of this change is the addition of the GST and a hike in other regressive tolls.

Economists project that Ottawa will have a surplus of $100 billion at its disposal over the next five years. However, only time will tell whether GST cuts and spending initiatives will keep the Canadian economy robust well into the 21st century

Somalia’s forgotten war

Last week, United Nations officials announced that the armed conflict in Somalia has created a humanitarian crisis that is likely Africa’s worst, eclipsing that in Darfur. The fighting in Somalia has been nearly constant in the country since 1991, and recently flared up in Mogadishu, sending thousands fleeing from the capital. At least 850,000 people are now internally displaced in Somalia, with some officials placing the figure at closer to one million. Deaths from disease and famine have already begun.

The UN’s pronouncement of this crisis fell with a thud in North American media. Most major newspapers in Toronto didn’t even carry the story, let alone put it on the front page where it belonged.

This should come as a surprise, considering the amount of media attention that has been garnered by ongoing conflicts in the Darfur region of Sudan. Given that Somalia’s crisis is more than comparable in scope, why are Canadians taking so little notice?

Like so many Westerners before them, the majority of Canadians have a very hard time thinking of Africans as fellow human beings in the same way that they conceive of Europeans or North Americans. In the minds of many, Africa is the continent of perpetual disaster: poverty, famine, AIDS, and constant war. We seem to think that Africans naturally just have harder, shorter lives than we do. No one is surprised to hear of another outbreak of war in the “dark continent.”

The violence in Darfur is the only conflict to have broken into the Western consciousness with any force in recent years, largely because of it has been portrayed by media and activists as a different kind of African conflict.

The conflict in Darfur has been deemed a genocide. This separates it from other serious conflicts such as the largely unheard of Congolese war, which since 1994 has claimed more than 3.8 million lives. The situation unfolding in Sudan is clearly serious and requires the full attention of the international community, but should we disregard the deaths of people in other regions simply because they are being killed for different reasons?

Labeling Darfur a genocide seems to contextualize the violence for Westerners. Genocide is something we can understand. After all, it wasn’t so long ago that Europeans suffered one. We identify the victims of the Sudanese violence with those of the Holocaust. This is a comparison made explicit by the hundreds of activists who wave Israeli flags at Save Darfur rallies, and chant “Never Again!” at our politicians.

Any slogan or historical allusion that urges action against the atrocities in Darfur should certainly be used to full effect, but what about the victims of conflicts that aren’t so easily analogous to Western history?

The war in Somalia seems to confound our sympathies. We do not see ourselves in its victims, only an unlucky mass of humanity unfortunate enough to have been born into a continental maelstrom of unending violence.

Our difficulty in identifying with Somalis should be all the more troubling because 200,000 Somali-Canadians live in this city. Many of those who are now facing hardships are erstwhile Torontonians who have returned to Somalia during lulls in the fighting.

If we could call them neighbours a few short years ago, why can’t we spare them space on our front pages today?