The history of atomic theory

The Prize:

The Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922 to Niels Henrik David Bohr “for his services in the investigation of the structure of atoms and of the radiation emanating from them.”

The Science:

Atomic theory dates back more than 7,000 years to the Ancient Greeks, who through thought experiments developed the idea that if you repeatedly split a substance in half, eventually you come to an indivisible molecule called the “atom.”

In the 13th century, Pseudo-Geber coined the theory of corpuscularianism, in which all physical matter was believed to be made of divisible particles (corpuscles). Isaac Newton and Robert Boyle combined Pseudo-Geber’s theory with alchemy to form a 16th century corpuscular theory of light. As the discipline of chemistry evolved, atomic theory and the idea of classical elements (earth, fire, air and water) was disproved by scientific thinkers. In 1803, John Dalton created the modern atomic theory, defining each element as consisting of distinct atoms that combine to form compounds. This theory was further validated by Robert Brown (who discovered “Brownian motion”), Albert Einstein, and physicist Jean Perrin. Scientists Dmitri Mendeleev and Lavoisier developed the first periodic table in 1869, arranging the distinct elements by their chemical properties and atomic number.

It was a long wait, however, until J.J. Thomson made the first discovery of a component of the atomic model—the electron—in 1897. Thomson showed that applying voltage between two electrodes in a vacuum generates a ray (known as a cathode ray) of negative-charged “corpuscles” (to use Thomson’s term). Thomson believed that electrons were the fundamental unit of matter, which he tried to prove despite knowing that atoms as a whole have no charge. To reconcile this contradiction, Thomson developed his “plum-pudding” model, wherein electron “plums” swam in a “pudding” of positive charge that neutralized the overall charge of the atom.

One of Thomson’s students, Ernest Rutherford, disproved the likeness of the atom to a fruit-filled dessert through his interpretation of the elegant “gold-foil experiment.” When positively charged alpha particles emitted from radium bromide are shot at a piece of gold foil only a few hundred atoms thick, instead of passing through the gold foil as predicted by the “plum-pudding” model, some alpha particles deflect with wide angles or reflect right back. To explain this, Rutherford proposed a new model in which a solar system of “planetary” electrons encircles a positively-charged central particle (the nucleus). This model reconciled how atoms can have a neutral charge but also deflect an alpha particle because of the large positively-charged nucleus.

What Rutherford’s model could not explain is how an accelerating negative charge (the electron) avoids emitting electromagnetic energy, a known property of accelerating charges. The planetary model also does not explain the observation that when atoms are excited, say by heat, they emit characteristic radiation spectra that can be observed by spectroscopy.

It was around this same time that quantum theory, developed by Max Planck and furthered by Albert Einstein, dawned on the world of physics. This model, for which Planck won the 1918 Nobel Prize, describes the behaviour of light and other electromagnetic waves. Light and other types of energy exist in only discrete bundles called quanta, with no half-measures. The size of the bundles is equal to Planck’s constant, h, a very small unit. Inspired by quantum theory, Neils Bohr developed his atomic model in 1913.

The Bohr model, also known as the Bohr-Rutherford model, starts with the planetary model, but incorporates quantum theory into the orbits of the electrons. Bohr postulated that like light energy, electrons have discrete amounts of energy. His model further suggested that electrons cannot travel around the positively-charged nucleus outside specific orbits that can be thought of as spherical “shells” at defined distances from the nucleus. These orbital shells are defined by a signature energy value, the quantum part of the theory.

In addition, the model states that an electron can only gain or lose energy by “jumping up” or “jumping down” into another energetic orbital shell. When an atom is excited, an electron can “jump up” into a new orbital sphere. Electrons that enter into a higher-energy orbital shell are unstable, and can not stay there for long. As they drop down to a lower orbit, they release energy in the form of radiation equivalent to the energy difference between the two orbital shells. These “jump downs” always release the same amount of radiation at frequencies that are characteristic for that atom.

Bohr’s model successfully explained many observations of the atom circulating at that time.

What Has Happened Since:

The Bohr-Rutherford model was the most advanced model of the atom for many years, but it was refined by others including Arnold Sommerfeld. It becomes less useful when applied to the properties and behaviours of large atoms. Despite this, the Bohr-Rutherford model is still taught to new science students before moving on to more complex orbital-theory models.

Current models for the movements of electrons include complex orbital patterns, wave-like behaviour, and the uncertainty principle—the concept that electrons aren’t normally at discrete foci and that their position can be best described in terms of probabilities.

We also have evidence that the nucleus is composed of more than just positively charged particles. Scientists now hypothesize that its ingredients list extends to quarks, bosons, and leptons.

Niels Bohr continued working in theoretical physics for the remainder of his life, contributing much to the field of atomic theory. During the Second World War he worked with the Americans on the Manhattan project, but was a strong advocate for a peaceful sharing of atomic knowledge and against a nuclear arms race. His son, Aage Bohr, went on to continue the family Nobel legacy, winning the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1975 with two others “for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection.”

UTSC breaks ground on new instructional centre

UTSC turned over the first piece of sod to construct a new $78-million instructional centre on a sunny afternoon last Thursday. The new building will increase UTSC’s teaching and research facilities by 25 per cent upon completion in 2011.

The centre will host co-op programs and the management and computer science departments. It will also include seven research and teaching labs, 13 classrooms, and 90 offices, as well as study and event spaces and food venues.

A similar $70-million centre at UTM breaks ground next Friday, Oct. 2. The federal and provincial government gave $35 million to each project, as a part of Ontario’s capital funding allocated for post-secondary schools and the federal government’s $2-billion Knowledge Infrastructure Program. The funding comes with a deadline: the buildings have to be completed by March 2011.

The University of Toronto covered the remaining cost of $8 million for the UTSC centre, or approximately 10.3 per cent of the total.

“This groundbreaking ceremony marks a major milestone in UTSC’s growth as an intellectual and cultural hub for the eastern GTA,” said Franco Vaccarino, VP and principal of UTSC, in a news release. Science and technology minister Gary Goodyear was also in attendance at the groundbreaking, and said the centre will provide a venue that will bring academia and industry together. Goodyear said renewed facilities at UTSC will allow researchers at Scarborough to pursue world-class excellence in their fields. Wayne Arthurs, MPP, and Derrick Fung, 2008 UTSC Coop Student of the Year, also offered their congratulations.

Many UTSC students agree that they could use more study space on campus. “We had an orientation for first-year management students only, and there were a lot of us,” said Ariel Duan, a freshman in the management program. “Maybe another building will make our campus less crowded.”

Others want more for the money they’re paying. “With the amount of money the school leeches from their students, I believe it could be put to better use to enhance buildings that are already on campus, such as the terribly outdated Humanities and Science Wings,” said Kyle Larkin, a second-year journalism student.

The Instructional Centre is a part of UTSC’s plan to create a “downtown core” for the campus at the crossroads of Military Trail and Ellesmere, opening a gateway and increasing the visibility of the campus.

Ice queens

The women’s hockey team showed composure and confidence during its first win of the Marion Hilliard Women’s Hockey Tournament that took place this weekend at Varsity Arena. Defeating the Robert Morris University Eagles 2-1 in a far more lopsided game than what the final score would suggest, the Blues exhibited superior skating and strong teamwork.

The first period saw aggressive play from the Blues, who dominated shots on goal 23-0. However, it was not until the period was almost over—with only 26 seconds left—that team captain Karolina Urban capitalized on a rebound from Brenley Jorgensen to finally score.

The Eagles got their first shot on goal in the first minute of the second period, and it looked as though the American visitors were going to challenge the Blues’ dominant play. It was not to be, as the Blues immediately got back on the offense. A sloppy changeover from the Eagles in the 13th minute brought them a penalty for too many players on the ice. The Blues’ second goal came during the ensuing power play. After an assist from Urban, fifth-year Annie DelGuidice sent the puck home decisively.

There was a quick attempt from the visitors to recover, but Eagles’ goaltender Ashley Miller had to contend with another barrage of shots instead. While the Blues exhibited superior skills, their inability to score was frustrating. With only nine seconds left to go in the second, Blues goaltender Kendyl Valenta saw some action, making an excellent save from a direct shot on the net.

During the final period, it looked as though the Blues were beginning to lose focus. The Eagles came out with all the energy they had, and were rewarded in the 11th minute when Ramey Weaver gave her team their first goal. Rejuvenated, the next couple of minutes showed spirited play from the American team. It was not enough to even the score, however, and the game ended with the Blues out-shooting the Eagles 64-11.

The team went on to win Saturday’s game against Concordia 3-2, and Sunday’s game against Etobicoke 1-0.

Head Coach Karen Hughes, now in her 17th season, was pleased with the result but had one criticism. “I didn’t like the third period very much. […] We need to score on more opportunities,” said Hughes.

“This year we have a good skating team. We have 15 players back and talented new players, so it’s just a matter of how they fit in together,” said Hughes on the upcoming season. “I’m still trying out different people in different positions.” Last season the Blues were third in the league and lost in the quarterfinals to the sixth-place.

Urban thought that the team “was playing aggressive, but while we had a lot of shots, we needed to bury the puck more. [This year’s team is] more mature, we have some good rookies and a lot of depth—we can play four lines. This is our goalie’s second year, and her experience will be crucial in close games.”

Back to the drawing board

Varsity Blues fans braved the cold on Friday night, coming out to support their football team as they battled against the Ottawa Gee-Gees at Varsity Stadium. In a 35-15 loss, the Blues demonstrated that they may be starting a trend where they open strong but fall short in the second half.

The game got off to a positive start with a back-and-forth struggle to dominate the field. Neither team could truly get their offence going or the scoreboard moving. At the end of the first quarter, the Blues were leading 3-0 thanks to a 15-yard field goal from second-year kicker Andrew Lomasney.

However, the Gee-Gees picked up the pace in the second quarter as they quickly took over the scoreboard with two field goals by Matt Falvo, and a touchdown scored off of a one-yard run from Matt Todd that was successfully converted. The Gee-Gees went up by two more points, scoring off of a safety when they conceded.

Just when it looked as if the game had taken a turn for the worst, the Blues called a time out and made a daring comeback in the last minute of the half. Quarterback Andrew Gillis made his first touchdown pass of the season to rookie slotback Paul de Pass, who scored in the final seconds of play to bring the Blues back into contention. At halftime, the Gee-Gees led only 15-9.

Despite a strong defensive effort by the Blues, the third quarter brought two more field goals from Ottawa’s kicker, Falvo. But the fourth quarter was when the game really got interesting.

In just over a minute of play, Gee-Gees’ Cyril Adjeity scored a touchdown when he received a 71-yard pass from quarterback Bradley Sinopoli. Shortly after, he did it again when he connected with Sinopoli’s 66-yard pass. The game’s top scorer, Falvo converted both touchdowns.

The Blues, however, did go out with a bang. As the game was dying and supporters began to slowly filter out due to the plummeting temperature, Toronto back-up quarterback Jansen Shrubb struck first-year wide receiver Ben Sharpe with an outstanding 83-yard touchdown pass to narrow the gap on the scoreboard by six points in the closing minutes.

“When I go in there, I know I’m not going to do much running, so it’s the passing attack,” conceded Shrubb after the game. The “passing attack” strategy contributed to the Blues ability to control the clock for the majority of the fourth quarter. Shrubb’s ability to connect with his receivers was evident last week as well when he made a 64-yard touchdown pass to Jonathan Wright.

Despite a few spectacular offensive plays against the Gee-Gees, the Blues are quite a new team. They rely rather heavily on their more solidified defensive counterparts. “The defence has been there all year, and we’re very appreciative of it,” acknowledged veteran slotback Drew Meerveld. “[The Blues] had a good game plan coming in; it was just a matter of being able to execute [it].”

Despite this being their fourth loss of the season, the Blues have made progress in their team dynamics. The Laurier Golden Hawks blanked them 36-0 in their season opener, at which point coach Greg Laval had no comments beyond, “Yeah, [they] steamrolled us. We definitely lost the physical battle today.” Against the Windsor Lancers, the Blues made it onto the scoreboard, falling 30-3. Last weekend, they scored their first touchdown of the season, losing 53-25 to the Guelph Gryphons.

The Blues are looking to improve their team cohesion and to play a complete game. They recognize that they have fallen into the trend of playing a strong first half that they then fail to maintain.

Although the score may seem bleak in the eyes of many U of T supporters, the Blues have shown that they are steadily improving, and they’re not giving up hope. Meerveld was firm when he said that the team does not want to get used to losing. “It’s back to the drawing board for next week,” he said.

Sports writing: How to play the game

October 5 marks the launch of a new sports writing course at the University of Toronto School of Continuing Studies. Believed to be the first of its kind at U of T, the course teaches the basics of writing, reporting, and using new media to produce work for public consumption.

The course will be taught by Perry Lefko, a sports reporter from Rogers Sportsnet and a frequent Toronto Star contributor. In preparation for the class, The Varsity sat down with Lefko to learn more about beginning a career as a professional sports reporter.

The Varsity: How did you get into sports reporting?

Perry Lefko: I went to Ryerson in 1979 and took the journalism course, and graduated there in 1982. […] I knew all along when I was growing up that I wanted to be a sports reporter. From Ryerson, I began working professionally in the business first in London with the Free Press, and then I came back to Toronto and worked [for] The Hockey News. Then I worked for the Toronto Sun for 21 years, and for the last three years I have been working on my own, freelancing.

TV: What are your primary beats?

PL: Right now, I write a lot about the Canadian Football League for Sportsnet. I also write for Metro News and I cover a variety of sports.

TV: Tell us a little bit about your class.

PL: The class is basically going to be an entry point into learning about sports writing and the various different ways you can do it. There’s professional writing in terms of writing for newspapers and magazines. But there are so many new different ways to write about sports these days—blogs, the Internet—there are so many forms available out there. If you think you know a lot about sports and you think you can impart that, you will be able to get people to start reading your stuff.

TV: The media is changing so quickly. Where does that leave the sports reporter?

PL: The sports reporter needs to be a little bit more diversified. The sports reporter now needs to be able to get stories online much quicker. There are so many ways you can express yourself as a sports writer.

TV: What are the necessary qualities for becoming a sports writer?

PL: I think the first one has to be your ability to write. If you don’t know how to write, it will be very difficult for people to understand what you’re trying to say. Having said that, there are lots of people who are interested in blogs who are not the greatest writers, but what they have to say has value. But you still have to be a fairly good writer. Second of all, you have to be able to tell your story for people to want to read it. The third thing is you have to have integrity because if you’re just going to be sloppy about what you’re putting out there and it has no ethics, people will find it difficult to believe what you’re trying to say. The fourth thing you have to do is be fast because in this changing atmosphere of news reporting, the story that gets out there first is going to get the most traction. Above everything else, there has to be passion for what you’re doing. If you don’t have passion for what you’re doing, it will reflect in the way you do your job, how other people see you, and how your product is presented.

TV: What’s your most memorable sports story?

PL: The one that meant the most to me goes back to a story in ’97/’98. I went to Regina to do a story about a woman who was a curler—her name was Sandra Schmirler. She was a very prominent women’s curler and was very well known in not only Canada, but around the world as being the best curler ever. She was battling cancer, and I approached her wanting to write a story about her battle and how she was winning [it]. I asked about writing a book about her life. The first thing she said was, “Would anybody care?” Right there, it was an example about how humble this woman was. Tragically, she died two months later, and it was a big story in Canada. Her funeral was covered nationally. I ended up writing a book about her life and it ended up being a national bestseller. To me, that was the most memorable story because of how much that woman meant to me as a person, as an athlete, and as an icon.

Lefko’s class begins on Oct. 5. You can sign up until the second week of classes, Oct. 19.

Breaking the ice

The Varsity Blues men’s hockey team is preparing for its upcoming season. After falling to the McGill Redmen in the quarter-finals of last season’s playoffs, the coaching staff have brought in five rookies that will hopefully give the team an edge. The returning players have regained their confidence since the postseason, training on and off the ice to prepare for their upcoming games.

Brendan Sherrard, who has captained the team for the past two seasons, is confident in the new players. He believes that the team will be even better than last year’s. After losing key veterans both on defence and on the front end, the Blues recruited Brent McGrail and Kyle Paige for their speed and scoring ability up front. Tyler Turcotte, Zack Fenwick, and Matt Walters have been added to the defence roster for their size and skill. Leading point scorers Joe Rand, Eddie Snetsinger, Byron Elliot, and Sherrard will play an important role in the team’s goal to make it to the nationals in Thunder Bay this spring.

Although Sherrard expresses great confidence in the team, he believes that their main focus this year should be five-on-five scoring. “Last year we relied on our power play more than any of us would have liked, so this year we need to put up better numbers—even strength,” said Sherrard.

The team is excited to travel to New York State, where they will face Clarkson University and St. Lawrence University in exhibition matches before their regular season begins on Oct. 9 at the University of Ottawa. Sherrard expects that the team’s greatest challenges this year will be the teams from the Far East.

“McGill, Concordia, UQTR, Ottawa, and Carleton always give us a tough game, and since we play these teams the most they are our toughest competition,” said Sherrard.

The first home game will take place at Varsity Arena on Oct. 18 at 2 p.m. The U of T hockey fan-base has not been large in the past, but with the new additions to the team, more people may be drawn to support the Blues. “Judging from what’s been going on in camp, we have four lines with eight defencemen who can all play, and when they’re on the ice they are all dangerous,” said Sherrard. “We have a lot of depth that I don’t think most teams have, which is why we’re all excited to get the season started.”

Petitions to leave CFS circulate on numerous campuses

Efforts to leave the Canadian Federation of Students, the biggest student lobby group in Canada, are underway at several universities across the country. Last week, the McGill Daily reported that students at 13 schools are circulating petitions that their schools de-federate from CFS.

The endeavour is still in the early stages: four student unions told The Varsity they were aware of the petition and wanted to remain neutral, while two hadn’t heard about them. The rest did not respond by press time. According to the Daily, petition organizers are disenchanted with the CFS for three reasons.

First, organizers accuse CFS of consistently employing aggressive litigation against student journalists and student unions wishing to de-federate.

“CFS is the most aggressive organization I’ve ever reported on. I don’t mean most aggressive ‘student organization’ but most aggressive organization— period,” wrote Erin Millar, a Maclean’s writer, in a blog post last week.

Three years ago, Millar wrote a piece about CFS’s legal threats against theneditor of the Ryerson Eyeopener, Robyn Doolittle, and editorial staff. Doolittle reportedly received a legal threat two hours before the paper was to publish a story about alleged money advances to Douglas College Union. The Eyeopener went ahead with the story and CFS did not pursue legal action.

“From what I hear, there was slander printed in the newspaper. What would you do if that happens? Ask for a retraction. If that doesn’t happen, make sure that it’s corrected,” responded Sandy Hudson, who is CFS’s national women’s representative and also president of the University of Toronto Students’ Union. “Going to court is a process of finding out whether that’s right or wrong.”

Second, petitioners claim there is a “revolving door” phenomenon between pro-CFS student politicians and the CFS national headquarters. One example they cite is Hamid Osman, former president of the York Federation of Students, who is currently a CFS National executive representative. In November 2008, Osman was criticized for leaving in the middle of York’s strike to campaign at a CFS membership referendum at the University of Ottawa.

Third, organizers say CFS is not effectively transparent and accountable to its member organizations. The former VP external of the Society of Graduate Students at the University of Western Ontario, Dan Dechene, cited transparency as his personal reason for wanting Western to leave CFS.

“It’s an ongoing process,” said Dechene, who is a petition leader. Dechene declined to comment on whether he contacted other student societies to coordinate anti-CFS efforts.

U of T full-time students pay around $12 per year for CFS national and provincial membership, according to Hudson. A CFS representative could not be reached to confirm the figure.

Several student union executives said they are maintaining a neutral stance.

“We received the petition on Thursday,” said Daniel Simeone, president of the Post-Graduate Student’s Society at McGill University. “Assuming the right number of signatures, we are obligated to go forward and hold a referendum.” Simeone said a petition verification process is scheduled for Monday, Sept. 27.

CFS bylaws require that petitions for a member union to split from the federation be signed by at least 10 per cent of that union’s membership. The PGSS currently has 7,000 members, each paying $12 per year for membership.

Other student unions listed by the Daily hadn’t heard about the petition. “We haven’t been contacted by students organizing a referendum,” said Gavin Armstrong, an exec from Guelph’s Central Student Association.

“I think it’s just a rumour,” said Veronica Harrison, chairperson for the University of Victoria Student Society.

U of T’s student union leaders expressed support for CFS.

“CFS has been very supportive,” said Joeita Gupta, VP internal for the Association for Part-Time Students.

Gupta said that in addition to CFS’s support for student space and campaigns against tuition fees and the Olympics, part-time students benefit from membership services like the health and dental plan and the Studentsaver Card discount program.

“The federation isn’t this thing off-campus,” said Hudson. “It’s difficult to make an impact with policy with just UTSU members. As members, we can go to student unions across Canada, tell them what’s happening.”

The Graduate Students’ Society at the University of Victoria and Simon Fraser Student Society successfully left CFS in March 2008.

The Cape Breton University Students’ Union also held a successful vote last year to leave CFS, but CFS maintains the referendum was not legitimate because the union failed to follow bylaws.

CFS de-federation procedure:

1) A petition must be signed by at least 10 percent of members.

2) Notice of a vote on defederating must be delivered by registered mail to CFS head office six months prior to voting.

3) CFS formally acknowledges they have received the petition, then decide within three months to approve or reject it.

4) If approved, 60-90 days’ notice are given for the referendum date

5) No less than two weeks of campaigning must take place immediately preceding referendum voting. Anti-CFS campaigners complain about the short window, since no vote can take place between April and Sept. 15 or between Dec. and Jan. 15.

6) No less than 16 hours of polling over no less than two days, except in the case of voting being conducted at a general meeting.

7) The vote is overseen by a committee composed of two members appointed by CFS and two members appointed by the local member association.

Tunes at noon

Inside a small auditorium, Jason Nedecky sings a recipe for rabbit stew, accompanied by fellow music lecturer Che Anne Loewen, who hammers the fast-paced tune on a grand piano. “When the flame has gone out, thicken the sauce with a pound of butter and flour. Seeeerve,” he belts out to a large audience of mostly students and seniors. People can’t help but laugh. And because it’s lunch hour, stomachs begin to grumble.

Every Thursday, U of T’s Faculty of Music hosts a one-hour recital at Walter Hall, inside the Edward Johnson Building at 80 Queen’s Park Crescent. The series features performances by staff and, on special occasions, senior students. The free event, appropriately titled Thursdays at Noon, is open to the public and preserves the university’s long tradition of showcasing its faculty’s talents.

More than half a century ago, the Thursday series was a mandatory event for students. It was intended to provide an opportunity for them to learn about works beyond the scope of their courses. In 1965, the Faculty of Music Council reduced the attendance requirement to attending at least 80 per cent of the time, but students protested and invented ways to cheat the punch-card system. The dean got rid of the rule four years later. Nowadays, while students come out either for extra credit or to complete an assignment, many show up simply to support a teacher.

Last week’s concert was the first Thursdays at Noon for Michel Ross, a second-year Master’s student in collaborative piano. Intrigued by the collaborative element of the performance, he described the connection established between the pianist and singer like that of tuning into a different language.

“You learn things that you should do and things that you shouldn’t do,” said Ross. One thing he enjoyed was getting to sit in the audience while he watched a teacher perform. “It’s fun to poke at the little things that they would criticize you for.”

With the tables turned, it’s no wonder the performers feel that the pressure’s on. “Students are the hardest audience to perform for. Ever. Ever. Ever,” explained Loewen, a senior lecturer at the music faculty. “You ask so much of them. You’ve got to show them that you ask that much of yourself as well.”

Last Thursday featured a special music and poetry combo with vocalist Nedecky, Loewen on piano, and Eric Domville as a guest speaker. Domville, a Professor Emeritus in the English department, shared his interpretation of the two works played at the event. During the moody Calligrammes, Op. 140 by composer Francis Poulenc, the audience listened to French poems about war and women. The fatty recipes from La Bonne Cuisine by West Side Story composer Leonard Bernstein, however, added an extra ingredient to the mix.

“You can set anything to music if you feel like it,” Domville said.

For more Faculty of Music events, check out