Nobelmen: Chemist Linus Pauling rewarded for over two decades of scientific breakthroughs

The Prize:

The 1954 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to Linus Pauling “for his research into the nature of the chemical bond and its application to the elucidation of the structure of complex substances.”

The Science:

Linus Pauling has been honoured by many as the greatest modern chemist. A Nobel Prize was definitely in his destiny, but Pauling himself wasn’t sure what he would win it for.

His contribution to chemistry is a story of a career’s worth, with no single great achievement—something that Alfred Nobel had stipulated as necessary for Nobel Prize–winning work.

Pauling’s interest in the chemical bond started during undergrad. At this time, the model for the chemical bond, the “glue” that keeps two atoms in a molecule bound to each other, was thought of as “hooks and eyes” like the clasps found at the top of some zippers. Every atom had a certain number of hooks and eyes to attach to other atoms, and joining a hook and an eye from different atoms resulted in the formation of a chemical bond.

Pauling’s own work on chemical bonds was highly influenced by the work of Gilbert Lewis and Irving Langmuir (Nobel Laureate, 1932). The Lewis and Langmuir model of the atom posited that the electrons that orbit the nucleus of an atom can be found in orbital shells: the first shell contains two electrons, with the remaining electrons found in subsequent, larger shells that hold eight electrons each. In their model, the atom is “happiest” when the outermost shell is full. Thus, an atom that has seven electrons in its outermost shell will bond to an atom with only one electron in its outer shell, allowing them to “share” that electron, and making both atoms “happier.”

Of course, this model was too simplistic to explain what chemists at the time knew about atoms. The scientific community was already beginning to think of electrons as waves and not as moons orbiting a nuclear planet.

After completing his PhD in 1925, Pauling spent time in Europe on a Guggenheim Fellowship working with quantum theory giants Arnold Sommerfield, Niels Bohr (Nobel Laureate, 1922), and Erwin Schrödinger (Nobel Laureate, 1933). Exposure to the world of theoretical physics allowed Pauling to start his own lab at Caltech in a very new field, quantum chemistry, where he could explore the connection between quantum mechanics and the chemical bond.

Pauling’s Nobel-winning work began in 1928, when he published a theory on the nature of the carbon bond. His paper hypothesized that the formation of chemical bonds resulted in the exchange of energy, an idea originally proposed by Walter Heitler and Fritz London. This theory addressed a long-standing debate between physicists and chemists over carbon’s bonding geometry. The paper did not include any mathematics to back up Pauling’s hypothesis, but he set out to prove it mathematically and finally did, three years later.

In 1931, Pauling wrote the first in a series of seven papers describing “The Nature of the Chemical Bond.” Using quantum mechanics and wave functions, Pauling derived the strengths and arrangements of bonds and predicted other properties of bonds not yet discovered. “I was so excited and happy, I think I stayed up all night, making, writing out, solving the equations, which were so simple that I could solve them in a few minutes,” he said at the time.

Pauling was one of the few chemists familiar with quantum theory, making his theories easily 10 years ahead of everyone else’s. Einstein famously said, “It was too complicated for me,” to a reporter after sitting in on a seminar given by Pauling in 1931.

Each successive article in the “Nature of the Chemical Bond” series built upon the theories of part one, and described a different aspect of the chemical bond. The third paper in the series outlined the differences between covalent bonds (when two atoms share an electron virtually equally) and ionic bonds (when one atom takes the lion’s share of the electron time). He demonstrated that bonds in intermediate states between covalent and ionic could be explained by quantum mechanics and chemical observations.

Pauling’s fourth paper in the series described the famous electronegativity scale. Unlike the other papers which were heavy on theoretical physics, this paper was intuitive and the science was easy for other chemists to understand. Pauling’s electronegativity scale is a measure of how hard an atom can “tug” on an electron shared in a chemical bond. When an atom with a high “tugging” power shares an electron with a lower pull, the bond they share is more likely to be ionic. The scale allowed chemists to predict what type of bond two atoms will form when they react.

In the early 1930s, Pauling was publishing an average of one manuscript every five weeks—an impressive rate even today. Throughout this prolific period, he also devoted much time to teaching. He was known as an excellent lecturer and could make even the most difficult concepts easy to understand.

His teaching influenced another of his major works, The Nature of the Chemical Bond and the Structure of Molecules and Crystals: An Introduction to Modern Structural Chemistry, a textbook aimed at graduate-level chemistry students that revolutionized the way chemistry was taught. It focused on how the quantum mechanics of a chemical bond can influence molecular structure and therefore the behaviour and properties of molecules. Max Perutz (Nobel Laureate, 1962) said that Pauling’s textbook showed that “chemistry could be understood rather than being memorized.” It quickly became accepted as a standard text and was translated into many languages.

The next stage of Pauling’s career moved away from chemistry and into biology. He made significant contributions to protein chemistry, genetics, and immunology. With others he determined the molecular mechanism behind sickle cell anemia. Pauling also contributed to the discovery of secondary structure elements in proteins that allow proteins to fold into functional forms. James Watson and Francis Crick rushed their work to explain the structure of DNA because they perceived that Pauling might discover it before them—they beat him and won the Nobel Prize in 1962. He also made valuable contributions to the war effort during the Second World War.

Yet, the Nobel Prize eluded him. It was only in 1954—over 20 years after his original contributions—that Pauling was finally honoured by the Nobel committee. Pauling first heard about his award from a reporter, first asking “what did I get it for?” He was happy to hear that he had won the award for his work since 1928. The committee had bent the rules and awarded Pauling an award for years of achievement.

Pauling’s influence on almost every branch of science is undeniable. He revolutionized the way scientists thought about chemistry. Francis Crick called Pauling “the father of molecular biology” and Pauling’s name can be heard in the same breath of such great thinkers as Newton, Galileo, and Einstein.

What you may not know:

After years of waiting for his Nobel in Chemistry, Pauling was soon afterwards awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1962. The second award made Pauling the only scientist to be singly awarded a Nobel Prize in two different categories.

This Nobel Prize was awarded to Pauling for his work from 1946 onwards in campaigning against the building, testing, and use of nuclear arms in war. In 1946, Pauling, Einstein, and seven other scientists founded the Emergency Committee of Atomic Scientists to prevent the use of nuclear weapons from ever again creating the disasters seen in both Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan.

With aid and inspiration from his wife, Ava Helen Pauling, he wrote an appeal against nuclear weapons that was signed by 2,000 American scientists and 8,000 scientists abroad to petition the American government and the United Nations. Pauling wrote the book No More War! describing the collection of these signatures. He and Ava worked tirelessly on organizing conferences to promote peace.

For his work against nuclear weapons, Pauling was stripped of his passport by the American government and prevented from attending a scientific lecture tour of Europe because he was seen as a communist sympathizer and was described by the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee as “the number one scientific name in virtually every major activity of the Communist peace offensive” in America. He was reissued his passport in order to attend his Chemistry Nobel Prize ceremony in 1954.

The Chair of the committee concluded his presentation speech to Pauling with the words: “Should Linus Pauling, through his tireless efforts, have contributed—if only a little—to restoring to science its ideals, then his campaign will in itself have been of such value that we living today can scarcely appreciate the full extent of the debt we owe him.”

Our year in lists


Blockhead—The Music Scene

Blockhead is a young grasshopper in the giant scheme of sampling but it wouldn’t be far-fetched to say that he is approaching mastery. The Music Scene, his fourth solo album, can slay the mightiest of instrumental music snobs with its rolling rhythms, obscure vocal samples, and blending of genres. This is most obvious on a track like “The Daily Routine,” featuring street shouting that moves from a driving, devilish chant to a beautifully jazzy, almost Latin-like, rhythm and finally to a dreamy, electronic beat. The seamless interaction of these elements throughout the album is the mark of a genius.
Lola Landekic


In these troubled times, who better to turn to for solace than an unemployed, shaggy haired fuck-up bumming around San Francisco trying to forget a childhood spent in the Children of God cult? In 2009, Christopher Owens was the voice of a generation, tired and disappointed and maybe a little stoned, trying not to be bored with everything—the 00’s very own Paul Westerberg. But there’s still hope: the sunshine surf riffs, the promises of ex-lovers to be “friends forever,” and the paean of the so-catchy-Iggy-would-be-proud “Lust for Life”: “If I really tried with all of my heart, I could make a brand new start in love with you.” It may be a “Hellhole Ratrace,” but if we want to do some dancing too, here’s the soundtrack.—WYNDHAM BETTENCOURT-MCCARTHY

HEALTH—Get Color

Two years after the overplayed “Crimewave” was appropriated by Toronto’s
electro-darlings Crystal Castles, HEALTH’s sophomore release stands strong and separate from most of the electronic hipster bullshit they’re associated with. Expanding on their self-titled debut, Get Color explores the dynamics and crescendos not fully realized in their first effort. Tracks such as “Die Slow” (which boasts one of 2009’s heaviest intro riffs) and “We Are Water” have a more self-contained and finished feel to them. The album is decidedly more focused, and admittedly a little darker.—DAVID PIKE

Converge—Axe to Fall

The fragmentation and specialization of heavy and aggressive music, particularly in the last year, has become almost unbearable as bands create disparate genres differentiated only by particular riffs, time signatures, and tonal qualities. Their 2009 release Axe to Fall recalls the ferocity of 2001’s masterful Jane Doe (which still overshadows their subsequent releases), adding a more timeless, classic metal feel—all the while maintaining Jacob Bannon’s signature vocal style and Ballou/Newton’s unmistakable song writing.—DP

Dirty Projectors—Bitte Orca

Those irresistible grooves, those acrobatic vocals. If Paul Simon and David Byrne and Mariah Carey had a threesome, something like Bitte Orca could be the result. It’s more likely, though, that it could only be the product of Dave Longstreth’s genius, already demonstrated on 2007’s shimmering Rise Above. No band alive plays with rhythm the way the Projectors do—just try not to feel the beat of “No Intention” in your hips. Even the songs packed with sounds and short guitar thrash always have a cleanness and precision. Tambourine, reeds, and driving drums pulsate the elasticity of 2009’s best song, “Stillness is the Move,” with Amber Coffman’s voice building a bridge from “a diner in some remote city off the highway” straight up to heaven.—WBM

Grizzly Bear—Veckatimest

The pop gem of “Two Weeks” caught our ears first, sailing on choir harmonies so effortless they might send Brian Wilson back to bed yet again. But the magic truly happens in the vast soundscape of melancholy that builds throughout the album, quietly exploding on the magnificently orchestral “While You Wait for the Others.” Everyone has had a broken heart, but few musicians capture loss with such eloquence while saying so little. Thom Yorke’s robot heart dreams about making music this affecting, where the simplest words and sounds coalesce into an island of sentiment and longing, drifting in that cold East coast sea.—WBM

We Were Promised Jetpacks—These Four Walls

The introductory track, “It’s Thunder and It’s Lightning,” was proof enough that We Were Promised Jetpacks is taking both indie rock and Britpop in a completely new direction. Reminiscent of American Midwest indie rock bands from the 1990s, Jetpacks have produced a consistently driving, yet inoffensive or abrasive gem of a record that is simultaneously introverted and extroverted. Tracks like “Quiet Little Voices” get one’s heart going without fail, and “An Almighty Thud” resonates far deeper for me sonically or personally than many of the records making everyone else’s year-end lists.—DP

Little Girls—Concepts

Little Girls seems to have snuck up on this city like a fog: heavy, enveloping, and more than a little mysterious. Though the album can be repetitive, the allure of Concepts comes from its combination of inarticulate lyrics, sharp fuzz, and sweet drum lines. It’s a hard little gem of noise and pop that stokes the embers of Joy Division’s legacy.—LL

Phoenix—Wolfgang Amadeus Phoenix

2009’s theoretical “best new band” was actually on their fourth album this year, but buzzy synth anthem “1901” made the masses pay attention to Phoenix like never before. The band’s poppiest effort to date, Wolfgang Amadeus Phoenix played into eighties revivalism with massive bursts of energy and charisma. “Lisztomania” was a particularly appropriate soundtrack for a John Hughes mash-up video.—Shoshana Wasser (because they couldn’t agree on a 10th album!)

Ume—Sun-shower EP

SPIN picked Ume in March 2009 as one of seven undiscovered bands worth a listen and I completely agree! Dear readers, get a clue: this band deserves your attention. Ume’s Sunshower EP couples rough instrumentation with a soft delicacy that is wonderfully palatable. The only problem with it is that it’s too short. If you like Sonic Youth, The Pixies or cute girls, don’t sleep on this band.—LL

Honourable Mentions

Wyndham: Sunset Rubdown, Neko Case
Lola: The Xx, Jay Reatard
Dave: Volcano Choir, Mono


A Serious Man

Following their nihilistic Burn After Reading, the Coen Brothers’ film about a Minnesota physics professor (Michael Stuhlbarg) and his attempt to find God in the wilderness of his compounding misfortunes is likely their most personal and insightful movie. Director of photography Roger Deakins finds sharp beauty in the greys and blues of the film’s suburban wasteland.—Chris Berube


For his first horror film, Lars von Trier tackled the most frightening topic of all: his own Catholic guilt. Opening with a scenario of deep sexual shame, Antichrist becomes a painful religious parable about a world where all creation is evil, and woman, the giver of life, is the evilest of all. Anchored by extraordinary performances by Willem Dafoe and Charlotte Gainsbourg, Antichrist is an unrelenting psychological horror film and an intensely personal artistic statement.—Will Sloan

The Bad Lieutenant—Port of Call: New Orleans

Hire Werner Herzog to direct a standard police procedural drama and you get…a Werner Herzog film. In collaboration with a hilariously unhinged Nicolas Cage giving his best performance in years, Herzog took the framework of a cops-and-robbers drama and turned it into a gonzo, hugely entertaining black comedy. Not just one of the director’s most pungently atmospheric films, but also one of his funniest.—WS

The Class

Laurent Cantet’s story of a year in the life of an inner city Parisian middle school wrings pathos out of a familiar kind of impotence in the modern education system. Watching well-meaning but jaded teacher François confront the contradictions and hypocrisy of a deeply fractured system—and his interactions with the kids stuck in the middle—is truly heartbreaking.—CB

Fantastic Mr. Fox

For his most recent film, Wes Anderson chose to forgo live-action in favour of animation. The stop-motion is jittery and the music is sparse, yet the movie never skips a beat. It feels entirely authentic and sure of itself with that characteristic Andersonian vibe present throughout. The lush, warm colours along with careful set and costume design are as pleasing to the eye as the characters’ voices are to the ear.—Tom Cardoso

In the Loop

There is a certain poetry to the feature-length blue streak of Malcolm Tucker (Peter Capaldi) in this British comedy about the lead-up to a fictional war in the Middle East. The withering send-up of modern ego politics makes this a work of high modern satire. Introducing shibboleths like “fuckety bye,” “let them eat cock,” and “I will punch you into paralysis” into the canon of obscenity helps, too.—CB

Inglourious Basterds

This revisionist WWII action-drama epic is packed full of film and music references, as is to be expected when dealing with Quentin Tarantino. Along with the excellence of its quintessential Ennio Morricone-laden soundtrack, Christoph Waltz gives one of the most stunning performances of the year as Nazi official Hans Landa.—TC


Bad-ass doesn’t even begin to describe Liam Neeson in this crazy action romp through the streets of Paris. After 20 or so brief minutes of plot development, the film shifts into overdrive, with an insane body count matched only by the sheer balls of Neeson’s character—at one point, he even shoots a French cop’s wife. After a while, you can’t help but feel sorry for Neeson’s enemies in the film.—TC


Hollywood survivor James Toback was the perfect director for a documentary about another survivor, his close friend Mike Tyson. With no pretense of objectivity, Toback’s film simply lets Tyson deliver his life story in a monologue that is engrossing, revealing, often intelligent, and sometimes absolutely maddening. Freed from years of hype, scorn, and caricature, Toback finally gives us a chance to see that Mike Tyson is a man, warts and all.—WS

Honourable Mentions

Chris: Adventureland, Anvil! The Story of Anvil, Interior Design (Michel Gonry’s third of Tokyo!)
Tom: 35 Shots of Rum, Avatar, The Hurt Locker
Will: Bruno, Observe and Report, Where the Wild Things Are


Oh Holy Father, where art thou?

The recent attack on the Pope during Christmas Eve Mass made me think about the relation we Catholics have with him. It’s extremely confusing to outsiders and, at times, it would be correct to say some people idolize him. To us, he is another father, one that we don’t always agree with but we trust to lead us through times good and bad.

One of the most memorable events of my family’s Christmas vacation will be standing in horror 20 feet away from where the attack happened.

After four hours of lines, security checks, and rain, we made it into the standing section as the doors were closing. As the curtain at the back of the church opened, a parade of cardinals, bishops, priests and other clergy marched out before Benedict XVI made his grand entrance.

The crowd erupted. As whenever the Pope appears in public, a mass of outstretched arms holding cameras followed him. Every Catholic, no matter how lapsed, was filled with both a spirit of awe and a savage instinct to push everyone, young and old, out of the way.

I caught a glimpse of the Pope seconds before he turned the corner and was attacked. We could only see the camera mob, but knew something had gone wrong when a terrifying collective scream rose and echoed through the ancient walls of St. Peter’s Basilica.

For about 10 seconds everyone remained silent, glancing at each other, telepathically exchanging the same concern for our Holy Father’s old age. As the Pope got back on his feet, a man cried “Viva il Papa!” (“Long live the Pope!”). The church erupted in applause and cheering as the 81-year-old man made his stride up to the altar.

Quite often I find myself at odds with the Vatican. There are aspects of Church dogma that I either disagree with or am baffled by. The Church has a history of abominably oppressive actions that are hard to swallow, though moves are being taken to heal and reconcile them. I also get upset with public relation nightmares, like when Benedict XVI spoke out against condoms on his flight to Africa last March with wording that practically asked the media to misquote him.

And yet, I respect the Pope and his office. He keeps the billions of Catholics throughout the world united in a way that no other group is, especially in a world that increasingly oversimplifies religious thought and treats it with hostility. Catholics trust him to lead a tradition that has gone through trouble and change.

At the end of the Mass, the Pope blessed a traditional creche (nativity display) then walked through the back curtain behind Swiss guards and men in suits. En route he decided, seemingly on a whim, to bless the foreheads of three small children in the crowd. For me, the gesture symbolized both the resonance of real face-to-face encounters as well as the Pope’ role as a father figure to billions.

UBC student union fails to impeach execs

Two student politicians at the University of British Columbia will keep their jobs after facing possible impeachment for filing a human rights complaint to the United Nations over unaffordable education. President Blake Frederick and VP external Tim Chu of the Alma Mater Society have instead had heavy restrictions placed on their powers.

An hour before the meeting to impeach the execs, an 18-page legal opinion from AMS’s law firm, Davis LLP, informed the council that a recall or an impeachment motion would be illegal. The firm advised instead to censure, or formally reprimand, the two executives.

Despite the lack of an impeachment motion, over 200 students attended the council meeting on Dec. 7. Council unanimously passed a motion to censor Frederick and Chu and then a subsequent motion requiring the execs to report their activities on an hourly basis. At the meeting, Frederick called the UN complaint a “media stunt that was meant to engage public discussion about tuition.”

Frederick’s first hourly report has already stirred up some discussion, with activities like “Bubble Tea Break (2pm-2:30pm at the UBC Village)” and “Facebook (2:15pm-2:30pm).”

The AMS has scheduled its annual general meeting two weeks earlier than usual, on Feb. 12, to further punish Frederick and Chu. The new executive is officially brought in at the AGM.

According to the Facebook group “We oppose the AMS impeachment of Blake Frederick and Tim Chu,” Chu is quoted as saying that filing the UN complaint cost around $6,000. Frederick said it cost another $6,000 to get the legal opinion on the removal of directors.

U of T student lands Rhodes scholarship

Erin Fitzgerald has been awarded the prestigious Rhodes Scholarship, which will provide a stipend and tuition expenses at the University of Oxford for two years, with an option for a third year. Each year, 11 Rhodes Scholarships are earmarked for Canadians, with two going to Ontario residents. Fitzgerald will graduate in May 2010 with an Honours BA in international relations and political science.

Established in 1903, the Rhodes Scholarship considers academic distinction, citizenship, and extracurricular activities. The award is named after Cecil Rhodes (1853-1902), the British businessman and politician who founded the diamond mining corporation DeBeers. Rhodes is best known for his ardent support for colonialism, accumulating his wealth to the detriment of oppressed peoples.

Scholarships are nothing new to Fitzgerald. Thanks to a bevy of scholarships, including $25,000 from U of T, $16,000 from the province, and $20,000 from Coca-Cola, her father’s employer, she is debt-free.

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Fitzgerald has an excellent academic record, and graduated from high school with a 99.5 per cent average, the highest in Toronto. Nithum Thain, the other Rhodes Scholar from Ontario, has a 4.0 GPA. He is currently in his second year of his Doctor of Philosophy in mathematics at McGill University. He plans to do a Master’s in developmental economics at Oxford in September 2010.

It should be noted the scholarship looks for more than grades. Such was the case with Kofi Hope, a U of T alumnus who became a Rhodes Scholar in 2007. “In my final year I got straight A’s for the first time in my life and was pretty much spending as much time on activism as school, if not more time on activism,” Hope said.

Fitzgerald spent a summer working as an intern at the World Health Organization in Geneva. Another summer she was at the Center for Strategic and International Studies in Washington D.C., where she co-authored with Anthony Cordesman, a well-known security analyst, reports on Afghanistan, Iraq, and U.S. strategic planning.

At U of T, Fitzgerald is the chair of the G8 Research Group, a network of students and faculty who monitor how well G8 and G5 members comply with commitments they make at G8 Summits. She attended the Toyako Hokkaido Summit in 2008 as a research analyst, and will lead a G8RG delegation to the Muskoka Summit this year.

Fitzgerald is the fundraising director and former president of the Hart House Debating Club, editor-in-chief of The Attaché Journal of International Affairs, and an undergraduate representative on the University Affairs Board of U of T’s Governing Council.

So how does she do it? “Organization is key. The skills that I learned from karate—discipline, focus—play a big role in my ability to maintain a balance between my GPA and extra-curricular activities,” said Fitzgerald, who has a black belt. “Because I have learned to focus on the task at hand, I am able to avoid procrastination and get to work quickly, which lets me take on and complete more things.”

At Oxford, Fitzgerald will pursue a Master’s in Philosophy in International Relations with a focus on military and strategic studies. She plans to get a law degree afterward, at an Ivy League university.

Word, on the street

In 2005 Lauren Kirshner started a poetry salon for women in the inpatient ward at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health. Inspired by the women she encountered, Kirshner saw the potential of creative writing as a tool for empowerment. Now she has launched Sister Writes, a creative writing program for marginalized women in the Parkdale and Bloor/Dufferin neighbourhoods.

Kirshner, a teacher and author, graduated from U of T’s creative writing graduate program in 2007. “I wanted to create a program where marginalized women could write about what matters to them while learning literacy skills,” she said. “The mainstream media says very little about the lived experiences of women facing poverty and mental health issues, and this near silence creates the illusion that these experiences do not exist.”

For Sister Writes, Kirshner is partnering with Sistering to run a 10-week pilot program for its female clients. Sistering, an agency that supports low-income, homeless, and marginalized women, will fund the program alongside the Toronto Arts Council and the Lawrence Foundation.

At the end of the program, the women design and publish a magazine to showcase their efforts.

“Most of the participants have never been in a creative writing workshop or a setting where the ‘I’ matters most of all,” Kirshner said. “A simple thing like a notebook and pen, time, and a safe place to write can be hugely empowering.”

From the archives—How did we do?


Various Artists—Gas CD (RAM Recordings/Select)

Toronto musician Chris Brown raided his Rolodex, dredging up some high-profile musical friends for this remarkably cohesive benefit album. Created to raise funds for protesters arrested at the Summit of the Americas in Quebec City last April, the disc ranges from spoken-word interludes by the likes of David Suzuki and Jello Biafra to the fierce political poetry of Michael Franti and Spearhead. Gas CD is at once immensely educational and enjoyable.—Tabassum Siddiqui


K-OS—Exit (EMI)

The Toronto MC’s long-delayed, much-hyped debut was worth the wait. Sure, the guy’s all too aware of his prodigious talents, but when you can rap, sing, play and write as well as he can, it’s understandable. Exit is a genre-defying triumph—hip-hop with heart and soul. K-OS’s recent deal with influential U.S. label Astralwerks may finally open some eyes across the border to the renaissance in homegrown hip-hop.—TS


Stars—Heart (PaperBag)

PaperBag Records got the ball rolling by giving us Broken Social Scene, but it was Broken’s Montreal/Toronto synth-pop pals Stars that they really had their eye on. Good thinking—the swoony quintet is much more immediately accessible than their art-rock counterparts, and Heart (their second full-length) revealed a band coming into their own unique sound. With fiery frontman Torquil Campbell playing Cupid to Amy Millan’s cooler-headed guitar goddess, it all added up to perfect, polished pop that sounded like falling in love.—TS


Feist—Let It Die (Arts & Crafts)

Six years ago, I hosted a benefit show with several local singer-songwriters on the bill. My favourite singer at the time was a slip of a girl named Leslie Feist. A charming, unassuming guitar whiz with a drop-dead voice, she was slated to play last. By the time she and her band went on well after midnight, practically the entire room had cleared out. Fast forward to four weeks ago, when this hometown gal-made-good brought a 1500-strong crowd to its knees at the ridiculously packed Phoenix. Memo to those kids at C’est What (and every other microscopic, empty ramshackle room Feist ever played back then): Fuck you. While it’s a shame she had to move to Paris in order to find success, Feist deserves every last bit of it for Let It Die. Pouring her cabaret voice over a collection of velvet-upholstered cover tunes and tiny, perfect originals, she reminds us that the saddest part of a broken heart isn’t the ending, but rather the start.—TS


Broken Social Scene—Broken Social Scene (Arts & Crafts)

You gotta root for your own, and if sprawling indie-rock collective Broken Social Scene has become somewhat of a local cause celebre, well, they deserve it. It couldn’t have been easy for them to shoulder the crushingly heavy expectations for their long-awaited (three years and counting) second record, but the hometown heroes rewarded the wait with a dense, difficult, and utterly beguiling work that reveals more of itself with every subsequent listen. Yeah, it’s a mess—a massive, layered, dramatic mess—but that’s the beauty of it. What other group would bury a K-OS cameo in swirls of sound and Leslie Feist’s hyperactive yelps (“Windsurfing Nation”)? Who else piles slivers of vocals and bits of blips on top of each other until the entire thing builds up to the point of collapse (the patented approach of BSS producer Dave Newfeld)? Half the time you haven’t the faintest idea what ringleader Kevin Drew is singing, and you realize you’re so deep into the music that you don’t even care, as when the vocals drop out of “Ibi Dreams of Pavement” before the entire thing bursts into a cacophony of horns. Art for art’s sake. A place for everyone and everything in its place. Glorious noise for an equally wonderful time in this city’s musical history.—TS


TV on the Radio—Return to Cookie Mountain (Interscope)

Because first single “Wolf Like Me” was the best song of 2006, but also because this Bowie-approved NYC outfit has found the line between indie avant-garde and music that’s actually entertaining.—Jordan Bimm


Radiohead—In Rainbows (Independent/XL)

The band’s best work since 2000’s Kid A, In Rainbows made headlines back in October for its unpredictable musicality and for its novel online release scheme, which allowed buyers to set their own price for the album’s 10 tracks. From the spastic, snare-heavy opener “15 Step” to the haunting comedown closer “Video Tape,” In Rainbows shows no shortage of creative accessibility—something especially evident on the album’s standout single “Jigsaw Falling into Place” and the downbeat gem “All I Need.” The best albums are perfect soundtracks to the season they are released in, and fall 2007 was all In Rainbows.—JB


Vampire Weekend—Vampire Weekend (XL)

It was a good year to be a hyper-literate indie rock nerd, as a bunch of khaki-clad Ivy League grads took their obsessions with chamber pop and African music and recycled them into a sugary collection of three-minute pop ditties. From the opening strains of “Mansard Roof” to the collegiate exuberance of “Cape Cod Kwassa Kwassa” to the raging sock-hop of “Walcott,” Vampire Weekend summed up the sweetest parts of academic life, adding an assortment of references to faraway lands that you’ll long to explore after graduation. Their debut album was a simple, escapist pleasure, one that’s even more valuable when you’re trudging across a snowy campus, trying to differentiate Barthes from Descartes.—Rob Duffy


We didn’t reach such an easy conclusion.

Canadian content: Proroguing Parliament illustrates Harper’s hypocrisy

It may be easy to forget, but Stephen Harper used to champion the supremacy of Parliament.

As recently as 2005, Harper remained enormously critical of parliamentary misconduct when Paul Martin’s minority Liberal government made use of every trick available to avoid or delay a confidence vote.

In a speech delivered on May 3, 2005, the Conservative leader gave a concise and persuasive defense of parliamentary democracy. “The whole principle of a democracy is that the government is supposed to be able to face the House of Commons any day on a vote,” he said. “This government now has the deliberate policy of avoiding a vote. This is a violation of the most fundamental principle of our democracy.” That speech is now particularly surprising given the events of December 2008, and those that have unfolded in recent weeks.

As both a citizen activist and an MP for the now defunct Reform Party and its short-lived successor, the Canadian Alliance, the future Prime Minister campaigned against the injustices of Liberal governments throughout the 1990s, and was a leading proponent of parliamentary reform and the democratization of the Senate.

Since he began his tenure as Prime Minister, Harper has abandoned his goal of a transparent and accountable Parliament. The current scandal over the release of documents concerning the torture of Afghan detainees is only yet another illustration of a government that has taken the practices of secrecy, dishonesty, and power consolidation to new extremes.

Towards the end of the fall session a majority of MPs voted that the government should release a series of documents and memos related to the alleged torture of Afghan detainees after their release by Canadian forces. That order was refused.

Harper’s sentiments from 2005 regarding Canadian parliamentary democracy have increasingly become alien to their author, who last December used prorogation as a tactic to avoid a self-inflicted defeat by an opposition reacting sensibly to a partisan budget it could never have accepted.

Simultaneously, Harper and members of his caucus called the opposition arrangement “treasonous” and “undemocratic,” despite having entered into a similar coalition agreement with both the Bloc Quebecois and the New Democratic Party several years prior. Once again, the Prime Minister has prorogued Parliament, delaying the return of the House by several weeks. This time, he didn’t even have to visit Rideau Hall in person—he phoned.

The move is widely seen as part of a three-pronged strategy. First, it allows the Conservatives time to regroup after a shaky end to the fall session and to use the coming Olympics as an opportunity to advertise their brand. Second, with such a time lapse, the opposition parties will have difficulty keeping the Afghan detainee issue alive. Third, it allows the Conservatives to stack the Senate with more partisan appointees, giving them an unprecedented majority in the Second Chamber and control of its valuable committees.

Each component of this strategy mirrors a different cause once championed by the Prime Minister. Shameless self-aggrandizement, a lack of transparency and openness, and the appointment of cronies to an undemocratic and unaccountable Senate were all once (rightly) criticized by Harper, who now embodies each practice to a far greater extent than his Liberal predecessors.

Putting aside the marked hypocrisy and dishonesty implicit in these practices, the Prime Minister’s conduct in recent weeks (and in December 2008) raises serious questions about the very functioning of Canadian democracy. In contrast to the American republican system, our federalism lacks the checks and balances of an elected President and two separate houses. In Canada, the diverse and complex organ of Parliament is supreme.

In the Westminster tradition on which Canadian democracy is based, the Prime Minister must at all times be accountable to elected representatives, something our current leader once understood. Not only would prorogation transgress the most fundamental principles of our democracy, but it would also set a dangerous precedent in which the legitimate democratic rights of the majority are subject to the political convenience of the few.