The University of Toronto Scarborough Library has launched reduced hours in response to recent pilot studies, stirring mixed feelings from staff and students.Last year’s 24/7 service ran 10 weeks through fall and 13 weeks through winter. This year, the service is scheduled only during exams from December 7 to December 21, and from April 9 to May 1. This represents an almost 80 per cent reduction from the previous year. For the remainder of both semesters — after Thanksgiving during fall and after February 7 during winter — the new extended hours stretch from 8 a.m. to 2 a.m. on Mondays to Thursdays, 8 a.m. to 12 a.m. on Fridays and noon to midnight on Saturdays and Sundays.“The library worked very closely with students in determining hours that will best serve their needs,” said Victoria Owen, UTSC’s head librarian. “We spent years conducting pilot projects, […] consultations, surveys, and focus groups to establish a schedule that is most beneficial to them.”Since 2005, the library has been running a series of pilot projects that test the efficiency of various operating hours. Last year’s study showed that after 2 a.m., average student usage fell to 31 before exams and to 78 throughout the exam period. The numbers continued to drop until 7 a.m. when they reached an average of 17 and 50 respectively, followed by an upward trend throughout the day.Owen explained that the changes were “designed to maximize resources and meet student demand where it exists,” but some are concerned that the library‘s current layout is still not quite meeting students’ needs.“As a university, we aim to educate students and have them attain academic success — longer library hours will help us achieve [this] mission,” said Fran Wdowczyk, special advisor to the chief administrative officer and chair of the study space working committee advocating for the increase of 24/7 study spaces on campus.“Some students have approached me troubled with the reduced hours,” said Scarborough Campus Students’ Union VP Academics Sulaimaan Abdus-Samad. “They just want a place where they can focus for long periods of time and not have to think of leaving at a certain hour.”Third-year student Philip So has his own reservations. “Though a 24-hour service is ideal, we are throwing away resources by keeping the library open when less than one per cent of the [student body] is using it,” said So.The Hazel McCallion Academic Learning Centre is the library at UTM, a campus of similar size to UTSC. It holds extended hours until midnight and also offers 24/7 services only around exam periods.“UTSC has some of the longest hours among the U of T libraries,” asserts Owen, but Wdowczyk believes that there is still room for improvement.“Increasing hours is a move that will propel the students towards success, and we will continue to work with the library so that the needs of students are realized.”
UTSC Library operating hours shortened
It’s getting better
“They tell me that things will get better. I can only hope so.” With the recent suicides of five LGBTQ youth in three weeks this fall, issues of discrimination and bullying based on a person’s sexual orientation have gained prominence.The community, faced with a suicide rate four to six times higher than in the general population, has manged to harness attention from politicians and media on continued inequalities. These struggles take place across society, including at U of T.“It still feels […] like fighting the man,” said fourth-year student Alex Legum, sighing and shaking her head. “These are human issues.”Legum, a member of the LGBTQ community, added that despite being a student in one of the most diverse universities and cities in North America, she continues to search for a sense of respect that remains elusive.Steve Masse knows this struggle well. As a member of the LGBTQ community and former president of Woodsworth College, Masse advocates for increased awareness on discrimination, bullying, and respect for LGBTQ students.
He is the first to admit, however, that many of the most vulnerable end up “suffering in silence.” According to Masse, discrimination and bullying can lead to “feeling worthless, misunderstood, or hopeless.”Syndicated sex columnist Dan Savage started the “It Gets Better” project in the wake of five teen suicides caused by societal homphobia.University Life Assessment and Special Programs Coordinator Melinda Scott believes “students don’t know the best way to address [suicide].” Scott explained that acts of suicide are often the result of larger issues of discrimination and hate, that the problems can appear too large to solve.To address these problems, U of T provides a series of programs and services that support the LGBTQ community. Initiatives such as Positive Space as well as student clubs like LGBTOUT work to create spaces within which individuals can “be themselves” without shame or fear of reprisal. Additionally, the Sexual and Gender Diversity Office provides an online harassment reporting system to ensure students can report incidents of hate or mistreatment anonymously.However, Sexual and Gender Diversity Officer Jude Tate is worried about the “increased tolerance of intolerance” that has created a culture of silence and acceptance that can reduce the number of reported abuses and conceal issues of hate and harassment towards the LGBTQ community. Issues of intolerance appear to be found in the very fabric of U of T’s communities.This is why Legum is realistic about the merits of programs such as Equity Studies, Women’s Studies, and Sexual Diversity Studies. While these programs can be seen as progressive, in some sense, “structural issues [have] made it impossible to integrate [this information] into other classrooms.” For Legum, the presence of these programs allows LGBTQ issues to be dealt with within these specific departments while ignoring the need for broader integration.Unfortunately, Tate further suggests that curriculum reform on a broader scale to include diversity issues and address these issues has been very tough, and obstacles remain.“They still have a long way to [go],” said Masse, who acknowledges that universities are heading in the right direction. But even if “places of education are becoming more and more inclusive and supportive,” the fact that we aren’t hearing about the sexual and gender diversity discrimination issues on campus does not mean they no longer exist.“We assume we are modern enough that we don’t need to have [conversations about discrimination] anymore,” said Legum.
University comes together for holiday season
The University of Toronto Students’ Union, the Family Care Office, and the Student Housing Office are organizing their ninth annual food and clothing drive to help support needy families for the holidays.“Every year, we help anywhere between 75–100 families. It’s a rather big project, and we want whatever little bit of help we can get,” explained Marketing and Events Coordinator at the Student Housing Service, Jerry Zhuang. “Every single bit of contribution will make a huge difference.Drop boxes have been set up across campus to collect toys and canned food. Once items are collected, UTSU Member Service Coordinator Terri Nikolaevsky explained how the goods will be distributed. “The donation of new toys will then be distributed through the campus food and clothing bank to families in need on December 10 and 17 at our site location, 569 Spadina Avenue, in the Multi-Faith Centre between 12 p.m. and 3 p.m.”“While the food and clothing bank runs all year long, we specifically collect toys at this time of the year to ensure that our student families have a great holiday season in the face of tight budgets,” continued Nikolaevsky.Zhuang hopes U of T will come together this season and improve upon last year’s results. “We delivered around 200 toys last year. Looking to deliver to the same number of families, maybe a bit more, it’s definitely growing.”Despite being roughly aligned with the Christmas season, Nikolaevsky stresses that all faiths and cultures are encouraged to participate. “This year we welcome Multi-Faith groups to the fold who are actively seeking donations for our students and student families.”“We’re doing things a little differently this year,” Nikolaevsky added. “Our efforts extend further to include an annual fundraiser for the food and clothing bank [that will] showcase […] exceptional U of T talent, a wonderful three-course dinner, and an auction.”Jennifer Bennett, manager of the Student Housing Service, said the food drive is a very key community-building event.“The food drive is important because it’s raising awareness and creating a community between people during the holiday time, which is such a hard time for so many.”Cheryl McGratten believes that beyond just fostering a community, the fundraiser is a way of making those who are studying abroad or are new immigrants to the country feel more welcome. “The U of T food and toy drive is one way to help those recently separated from their countries, and share some encouragement, joy, and fun,” explained McGratten, adding that she hopes they will also enjoy the diversity and multiculturalism of this city.“It’s a great feeling, to be standing in the middle of a mountain of toys, and knowing that lots of kids will be having a wonderful winter holiday,” explained Zhuang.In helping promote the fundraiser, the co-coordinators’ favorite catch phrase is: “We want people to help us gift a smile.”
Students gather to present visions for next big app
Last Tuesday a lecture hall in the Bahen Centre was packed for DemoCamp2, a symposium of eight presentations by U of T students demonstrating their web developments and entrepreneurial skills.“People were actually standing in the back. They couldn’t find any more seats,” says Reginald Tan, president of Web Startup Society, who hosted the event in partnership with the U o T Entrepreneurial Society. Over 160 guests attended, well exceeding both the expected attendance of 100 and the room capacity of 150.“We had to start turning people away after they exceeded the room capacity,” said Nitish Peters, president of UTES.Tan and Peters created DemoCamp2 to combat what they perceived to be a lack of entrepreneurial spirit in the University of Toronto’s technology field.“At Stanford, it seems like every single computer science student was creating a startup,” said Tan. “But when I went to U of T, I didn’t really see anything like that going on.”Peters attributes U of T’s focus on high GPAs as a detractor from the “startup culture” found at other institutions. “DemoCamp fosters an environment where people can define their own success and show how they are following their dreams as opposed to the stereotypical environment right now where people are very marks-focused,” he said.It wasn’t just U of T students who attended, students from all across Ontario came for the presentations as well.“A lot of people from Queens and York showed up and really loved it, and said they wanted to start a DemoCamp at their university, which is really cool. I’d like to see that happen,” said Tan.In contrast with last year’s DemoCamp, which was run by WSS in partnership with Rafal Dittwald, President of Skule Webdev, this year’s collaboration with UTES focused on the utility and marketability of students’ web applications, as opposed to nitty gritty tech details.“The audience at this one was much more focused on the startup aspect, rather than the craft of making the project,” notes James Cash, the only presenter to even mention code in his demo for the Google Chrome extension, ComicNav.Three of the eight demos were presented by student entrepreneurs with limited technical knowledge. Danial Jameel of OohLaLa, who switched from computer science to political science, showcased a mobile app for discount student coupons. First-year commerce student Donny Ouyang, of the tutoring site Rayku, hires developers out of his own pocket. “Donny buys websites, hires developers to make improvements, then sells them off for five times the profits — instead of flipping real estate, he flips websites,” said Tan. “Rayku was his first start-up.”When Khaled Hashem of NoteWagon.com was asked a technical question, his response was, “I don’t know, ask the tech guy.”
The other five presentations were given by so-called “hackers.” First up was fourth year electrical engineer Bijan Vaez with EventMobi, an iPhone application that allows users to view important details about the live event that they are attending. Next were Lori Lee and Andrew Danks, undergraduate students in computer science who developed LoveUT, a dating site exclusively for U of T students that has accumulated over 800 users. Michael Rice, a second year computer science student demoed Remember To Watch, an SMS reminder for TV shows recently featured in PC Magazine and lifehacker.com. After James Cash demoed ComicNav, wunderkind Vincent Cheung took the stage and demonstrated his massively successful Shape Collage, an automatic photo collage maker.Cheung emphasized the value of every utility-based web startup in his presentation: “A lot of [the entrepreneurs in the audience] laughed at the ComicNav extension, but I liked it. You never know, it really could be the next big thing.”When the event ended, Reginald Tan appeared very pleased with the results.“Ultimately, what we wanted to achieve from DemoCamp is to glorify these student hackers and hustlers. And we did just that. Democamp UofT encouraged students to do what they do best: build great things. And the great thing about the Internet is that you can make an immediate impact on the world if you create something really valuable.”
Note: this article originally stated that Danial Jameel hired student developers with money he won from business competitions, but this is not the case. It also neglected to mention that last year’s DemoCamp was in partnership with Rafal Dittwald. The Varsity regrets the errors.
David Mitchell v. The Orcs of Infinity: The Thousand Autumns of Jacob de Zoet (Interview)
Reading interviews David Mitchell has given over the years, there emerge at least three preoccupations he has with himself as a writer.He is in this for the long haul: he wants to be a writer for a long time and worries about one day fizzling out “as some writers can do writing variations of the same novel”; he tries to not write the same book twice.Consequently, he is constantly pushing himself into new forms to see what they can do. He is a structure wonk in a world lonely for structure wonks, and finds many a work by other authors to be stylistically spot-on but structurally sloppy.“I think that structure’s a little underdone,” he said at an International Festival of Authors event in October. “There’s many books where the style might be brilliant but it’s shapeless. If the five elements of the novel might be plot, character, theme/idea, style, and structure, structure’s the one that’s perhaps still a bit of a virgin territory. There’s space for new turf you can stake out on.”All of his books use structure, in some works more overtly than in others, to try the bounds of storytelling. His chosen structure for a book will create new problems to be resolved, and in resolving them, he covers new ground. As Mitchell summarized at the IFOA event, “Why write an easy book, hey?”This concentrated experimentation leads to his third preoccupation. All writers suffer from this, but Mitchell seems to feel it acutely, because again and again in interviews he complains about infinity: his books could go anywhere, be anything — take on the perspective of a bodiless soul, say, or write from the pen of Goatwriter, the storytelling goat — but any single book can’t be everything.“The big enemy when you start out a new book is infinity,” he said at Harbourfront, where he was co-headlining a talk with William Gibson. “Every writer has different techniques to filter out infinity, reduce all the possible Borgesian books from the library of a book. You have to get rid of all the others to get to the one: ‘That’s what I’m writing.’ The first-person narrator is one such filter … keeping out the Orcs of Infinity. Structure is also a kind of scaffolding.”Gibson agreed. “The appeal of structure is profound when one is embarking on a book,” he said.“It’s like the fiddle-maker who said that he starts with a block of wood and he removes all the parts that aren’t a fiddle. Writing novels feels like that to me: the trick is to find the fiddle. You’ve just described the process of how one can do that. Once you start to have a sense of what it uniquely is, you’re able to reject all those things which are not it and really working in an infinity of things that might be it. … That’s another way of saying you need boundaries. No matter how wild or crazy your imagination is going to go, it’s going to be wasted without those boundaries: it’s like trying to boil water with the lid off the pot.”Where does Mitchell’s latest book, The Thousand Autumns of Jacob de Zoet, fit into all this? Published earlier this year, de Zoet is Mitchell’s first wholly historical novel and on the surface, it doesn’t have the same whiz-bang pyrotechnics of his earlier books. There are no confessions of soon-to-be executed fabricants, though one storyline does go for a loop through speculative fiction territory. The experimentation is subtler, less showy, more controlled. As he reveals in this interview, the author views the 480 pages as “tightly disciplined,” adding, “I cut off far more fat from the book than there is left of it.”With de Zoet the author returns to Japan, the setting of many of his earlier stories and the country where he made his home for several years. The book opens in 1799 during the Tokugawa shogunate. The country is hermetically sealed from outside influences except at the trading post of Dejima, a tiny, walled, artificial island in Nagasaki Harbour operated by the ailing Dutch East Indies Company and closely watched by Japanese authorities. The dozen or so traders on the island are as good as prisoners. Among these is Jacob de Zoet, a young clerk who has joined the Company hoping to earn enough money to marry his sweetheart, Anna, back home. But once on the island, Orito, the daughter of a samurai doctor, catches his eye.The Varsity sat down with David Mitchell at the office of his publisher in Toronto.
I thought, ‘What have I done? Of course! It’s an engine designed to keep out the accidental. So this is why no one’s ever done a Dejima novel before.’
THE VARSITYI heard that you visited the island.
DAVID MITCHELLDejima, yeah.
THE VARSITYSeveral years ago, I suppose, when you first discovered the place.
DAVID MITCHELLYeah, it was ’96? Then went through again — oh, about four times I’ve been there, most recently in 2006 when we lived in Hagi, Yamaguchi. Have you ever been to Japan?
THE VARSITYNo, I haven’t.
DAVID MITCHELLYou should go one day.
THE VARSITYIt’s on the list. So tell me what it was about Dejima that inspired you. I take it that the place itself was the inspiration for the novel.
DAVID MITCHELLYeah. It’s a historical anomaly, and anomalies are good news for novelists because an anomaly is already a cliché-buster. Yes, everyone knows from James Clavell’s book and film that Japan was shut for 240 years and that’s a well known fact. But anomalously, it wasn’t quite: the door was very very very slightly ajar at Nagasaki, where the Dutch were permitted to operate a trading post. And what a trading post! Not just another one in the empire where white guys could come in and rule the local roost. They were confined on this little island. Only translators and prostitutes and merchants allowed on; they [the Dutch] were almost never allowed off. They were spied on, cheated. The arrangements were quite cut-throat and designed to keep them in a state of subjugation. And there were scholars gathered in Nagasaki hungry for this trickle of Enlightenment knowledge, rather like a UFO landing somewhere outside Edmonton containing a group of people who know how to cure cancer in an afternoon or how to solve the energy crisis or the big puzzles that perplex our finest brains — they have the answers — it’s a little like Dejima. Now, if I can’t find a halfway decent novel in that, I’m not much of a writer.
THE VARSITYHaving these characters who can never leave this space unless under very specific circumstances: did that pose issues as you were writing?
DAVID MITCHELLYou bet! Yes, I thought, “What have I done? Of course! It’s an engine designed to keep out the accidental. Okay, so this is why no one’s ever done a Dejima novel before. Now I get it. Everyone’s spied on and they can’t speak this language at all well — what are you going to do with dialogue? The only women allowed are geisha — oh no, that’s a big bad cliché, especially in Nagasaki. Madame Butterfly, thank you.” Yeah. I thought, “What have I done? This is awful. Okay, better restructure it.” That’s why, really, only one third of the novel actually takes place on Dejima — the first third. It’s a meaty third, maybe the meatiest, but of course — how do you get a relationship going? The chance encounters that relationships, even real ones, need to ignite in the beginning, they can’t happen there. It’s designed to stop them. It’s designed to stop interaction. “Damn!” I thought, yes.
Novels need walls, otherwise they spill over. It keeps out infinity and keeps you focused on the story and the cast of characters at hand. Dejima and the ship and the weird nunnery have ready-made walls.
THE VARSITYThe other two locales of the novel are a ship — also very
DAVID MITCHELLAnd the weird nunnery.
THE VARSITYAnd the weird nunnery. Was that confinement something that you ended up just constantly having to work around? Because the story escapes the island, but you still end up in these —
DAVID MITCHELLConfined places.
THE VARSITYConfined places.
DAVID MITCHELLEarly on, I identified it as a sort of theme, because some books bring their own themes to the party whether you want them to or not, and confinement is one, almost one I can’t take the credit for. It’s like, writing about Dejima, you write about confinement whether you like it or not. Novels need walls, otherwise they spill over — even TV series need walls. Stories need walls. It keeps out infinity and keeps you focused on the story and a relatively small cast of characters at hand. So Dejima and the ship and the weird nunnery have ready-made walls. [squints, thinking] The third thing I would say is … I’ve forgotten the third thing I was going to say. Um, sorry.
THE VARSITYThat’s okay. The theme presented itself, a novel needs walls, and …
DAVID MITCHELLIt’s almost there. [high voice] What was I going to say?
[Both laugh]I can’t believe it. It’s jet lag actually.
THE VARSITYWell, why don’t we talk about the nunnery, and if the third point comes to you —
DAVID MITCHELLSure. It probably will. It’ll bug me now.
THE VARSITYShout. So Dejima has its basis in historical reality …
DAVID MITCHELLCertainly. Absolutely.
THE VARSITYWhat about the nunnery?
DAVID MITCHELLNot so far as I know.
DAVID MITCHELLEarlier draft: Orito was just going to go there and we weren’t going to see her and we weren’t going to go inside that place. My friend said, “That’s really rich, you really put that in. The art and light, the Christian guy.” I could see the shotguns of accusations of misogyny lined up there. Also, I had to make it work. It’s got to be awful enough for us to want Orito to get out, but not so awful that the women there just end up hanging themselves instantly rather than having to submit to it. That’s a hard line to walk … [face lights up, throws arms in the air] I remember what I was going to say!
[laughs]Thank you thank you: historical authenticity.
DAVID MITCHELLWe swing around the world with our lights and our human rights and the bill of freedoms our forefathers in unions, etcetera, pried from the traditional holders of power down the centuries and we think are ours. We can go anywhere, we can say what we want and not be arrested, especially if you’re in a lucky country like the British Isles or North America. But for most of human history, not at all: we’ve led hugely confined lives. Easily nine thousand nine hundred and ninety-nine out of ten thousand of our forebears would have been indentured labourers or slaves or serfs or peasants or factory workers. You didn’t have more than the barest whisper of a say about how our lives would be conducted. Our time was not our own. Our money wasn’t our own, our labour wasn’t our own, nothing was our own, except our bodies, and very often for women their bodies weren’t their own. So what looks weird and strange and odd in a historical novel, it was simply normal, and has been normal for most of homo sapiens’ experience up to, what, the 1930s, the 1940s or so.
Rebels are easy and also quite lazy to do. But a character who you identify with as much as you might James Dean, who is not at all James Deanish in his outlook: THAT is more of a challenge.
THE VARSITYAlso these constraints of morality and social convention.
DAVID MITCHELLThat goes up and down. There have been times in the past — think of a few: at many points in the Roman empire, a rich, aristocratic woman in Japan, even, in the 12th century, in the time of Shōgun and The Pillow Book — there’ve been times which make our liberal, progressive era look downright conservative. So I think the progressive liberal thing doesn’t necessarily follow as smooth an identifiable track as, say, the rise of technology. It doesn’t accommodate with modernity that closely. And you can find places in supposedly very progressive, liberal North America that really make the 18th century look puritanical.
THE VARSITYI’m thinking of morality and social convention because once you do have Jacob meet Orito, they still have this friction to the relationship that Jacob wants to start because there are certain conventions he feels he can’t trespass.
DAVID MITCHELLOr if he does, he knows that you have to pay a fine when you trespass.
[both laugh]It won’t be free. Yeah! Well, he has a pious background. I wanted to write an uncool, pious character, because that’s more of a challenge than writing a casual, cool — I mean, rebels are easy to do, and they’re also quite lazy to do. But a character who you identify with as much as you might identify with a James Deanish kind of character, who is not at all James Deanish in his outlook: that is more of a challenge, that’s a harder trick to pull off. But why do anything easy? Readers know when you’ve done something easy. They know when you haven’t sweated and agonized over.
THE VARSITYI found something in Jacob of Adam Ewing from Cloud Atlas.
DAVID MITCHELLOh yeah: both somewhat naive. Possibly Jacob’s got more grit at his core, but certainly on the surface they’re both a little passive, or even more than a little passive. Fair comment.
A tricky one, language. It’s hard to get right in a historical novel anyway. Make it too authentic, it sounds like Blackadder.
THE VARSITYWhen you have these three confined spaces of the island, the nunnery and the ship, the power of translators is immense.
DAVID MITCHELLAbsolutely, yeah.
THE VARSITYYou have these characters whose languages are Japanese and Dutch, for the most part, and you’re writing in English.
DAVID MITCHELLYeah, I did my head in. And you have to keep the voices different, because otherwise people all speak the same, and do all that in English. I was crazy to take this book on.
THE VARSITYThe language still felt very natural, but every once in a while you would throw in a little phrase, you know, “so-and-so said, in perfect Dutch.”
DAVID MITCHELLYeah, I remind you that we’re speaking Dutch here. Yes, a tricky one, language. It’s hard to get right in a historical novel anyway. If you make it too authentic — well, no, if you speak as we would have spoken 200 years ago, it sounds like Blackadder —
DAVID MITCHELLYeah, it does, and there goes your suspension of disbelief, you’re laughing, and you do when you read it. Gadzooks, you laugh! But then, if it’s littered with neologisms, if you have a word like brinksmanship in it — “Did people say that then? No, they didn’t.” So you always have to consult Webster’s Online Etymological Dictionary to find the first usage. And then there’s, say, words that didn’t exist back then: brushstroke is really late, it’s like 1880, 1890 —
DAVID MITCHELLYeah! Really late, but when you’ve got Japanese people, you’ve got to use the word brushstroke, there’s nothing else — [mimes making a brushstroke on the desk] — you can do! Caligraphics? No, it’s got to be brushstroke! So you have to be wrong to be right. So every sentence you submit before the court and, like the judge, you have to weigh historical authenticity, its effect on the modern eyeball, tone, everything, everything. Really tough to get right, the language.
THE VARSITYIs it slower to write a historical novel?
DAVID MITCHELLOh yes. You bet. You have a character who’s having a shave: you’ve got to go away and discover when shaving cream was invented or, if it was, could a middle-class clerk have bought it or was it for the toffs back then or what? That’s an hour gone.
THE VARSITYDo you generally work that way? You’ll determine what direction you want a sentence, a chapter to go, and then you’ll do a bit of research then and figure out can this actually work? Or do you do a lot of research first and then carry forward from there?
DAVID MITCHELLDepends on how far the deadline is.
[both laugh]You do a big lump at the beginning so you’ve got a formed idea of the world — enough to construct a plot, anyway. And then you get to work on the plot, break that down into scenes, and scenes need their own staging and costumes and background stuff to break up the dialogue. Otherwise, it’s a film script. So if someone’s having a shave, they have to have a mirror. Fine, good, men would have needed to shave — but how? It was cheap, unbreakable copper mirrors? Or silver oxide mirrors? How much money have they got? Maybe it got broken — maybe a little bit of a mirror — probably, yeah, it’ve gotten broken easy on ships, but they’re too valuable, they’d have sold the fragments depending on size, say. Then you have to conceal the fact that you did all this research, otherwise it looks like you’re showing off and that also pricks the bubble of fiction. So the big stuff you research ahead of time, but the costume and background — just the papier-mâché of each scene, the poly-filler for each scene, you have to research on the hoof as you go through the scene, otherwise you start with a stupid, big, practical list of all the things you have to — no no no no, you can’t do everything like that ahead of time.
I don’t succeed as much as I’d like to, but I want to do that. Aspiration to omnivoracity of output as a writer: this really enhances my life.
Fastening clothes! That’s a big one. Buttons — because there’s no zippers, there’s no Velcro. Buttons cost money, they were expensive — this was before plastics. You needed wood — but then, if you’re a captain, you can’t be seen with wooden buttons, it’s got to be brass, metal, and that’s expensive stuff! Horn, ivory — interesting, isn’t it?
DAVID MITCHELLReally interesting. Medicine: when do people get ill? Is it the cold? How did they deal with it? Was it medicine likely to kill you? Because a lot of 18th-century medicine was. You’ve got to know all this stuff. Not for the faint-hearted, a lot if it, it’s really not.
THE VARSITYIt’s been said that each of your books is unlike those that preceded it. As the person who’s writing these books, do you find that’s true?
DAVID MITCHELLIt’s a conscious aspiration. I don’t succeed as much as I’d like to, but yeah, I want to do that. Not sure why. [laughs]
THE VARSITYThe challenge?
DAVID MITCHELLPartly. It makes you a more omnivorous writer. Curiosity is a wonderful thing. It makes life great. Lack of it makes life intolerable. Omnivoracity of diet as a reader and aspiration to omnivoracity of output as a writer: this really enhances my life. I get to be really interested in clothes fastenings. It’s great.
THE VARSITYAnd then you get to start something new.
DAVID MITCHELLAnd then I can write something else. Might help my chance for being able to be a writer for the long haul as well: not fizzle out as some writers can do writing variations of the same novel.
THE VARSITYThis is the first novel, I think, where you write in the third person. Is that right?
DAVID MITCHELLMm-hm. There’s a bit, the Louisa Rey sections of Cloud Atlas in the third person, but yes, it was. I tried doing it in the first person at first but I couldn’t get it right.
THE VARSITYDo you naturally go to the first person when you start writing?
DAVID MITCHELLYeah. It’s safe, it’s what I’ve always done, and I know I can make it work.
THE VARSITYSafe because you know you can make it work?
DAVID MITCHELLMm-hm. And it’s an infinity filter. “Who are you?” Get that worked out, and everything will fall into place. Who is this person? What’s their relationship with work, money, sex, God, other characters in the book, childhood, language. Got to get language right: are they mellifluous speakers or are they kind of a, sort of, you know, “It’s words, innit?” It’s just like that, and then you get them to write you a letter in their own words, and then you know what they’re going to do — got plot taken care of — you know how they’re going to speak — that’s dialogue taken care of. That’s a really good way to get going. Third person, you don’t have any of that. It’s you who has to decide — you the writer, not you the character. And that’s scarier.
Only when I thought, ‘Come on, grasp the nettle. Third person, here we go!’ and I worked out my rule about thought, only then did the novel really come to life.
THE VARSITYHow did you get around that, then?
DAVID MITCHELLI had some good advice. There’s a spectrum of third-person narrators. On the one hand you have the type that the great narrative sods of the 18th century would construct — so Fielding’s narrators or Sterne’s or Richardson’s: “Hellooo, dear Reader! Come into my novel. We’re going to have a nice stagecoach ride. We’re going to go on a journey, you and I. Now, I’m going to tell you a story about this chap Tom Jones … ” He knows everything, he interjects. It briefly flourished during postmodernism, actually, but it’s gotten quite rare, that.Then there’s the other end, [up-whistles] where the person narrating is basically first, but you just say “he” or “she” instead of “I.”You have to work out thought: that’s the big challenge. What do you do about thought? Are you going to hear other people’s thoughts? Are you going to hear this person’s thoughts and this person’s thoughts alone, or what? It’s also why it didn’t work in the first person here. I could just about work out the speech, how to make an 18th-century Japanese midwife speak Dutch in English — I could just about get my head wrapped around that and work out how I could do that. But thinking: how is that woman going to think? What language are you possibly going to represent her thoughts in? Ugh. I couldn’t do it. Just too — [reaches across the desk with one hand, grasping] — it’s just not a place I could reach and make it work on the page, because you can be right, but how it hits the eyeball is another thing altogether. That’s got to work. Otherwise, it doesn’t matter how clever everything else is. If it’s just horrible to read, then it’s a horrible book.So only when I thought, “Come on, grasp the nettle. Third person, here we go!” and I worked out my rules about thought, only then did the novel really come to life.
THE VARSITYSo what were your rules about thought?
DAVID MITCHELLMy rules about thought are that you have a Thought Hat, and one character per chapter wears the Thought Hat, and only the character who wears the Thought Hat’s thoughts can the reader hear. Thirteen chapters in each section. Except for the last two, which are two epilogues, really. First book: one character, Jacob, one and one alone wears the Thought Hat. Book Two: two characters, two and two alone wear the Thought Hat — that’s Orito and Ogawa, the translator. Book three: three characters and three alone wear the Thought Hat in succeeding chapters: Jacob and the magistrate and the English captain.However, each book also has a guest: the first prologue chapter where the character who does not wear the Thought Hat in the rest of that book wears the Thought Hat. So it’s Orito in the birth scene at the beginning of the novel. Book two, it’s the Christian woman, the herbalist woman, she wears the Thought Hat for the prologue chapter. Then, for Book Three, I wanted to get a slave in, because they’re the people really off the historical record of Dejima. The Dutch were going to have to submit to all these rules of the Japanese, but they damn well weren’t going to wash their own underwear, so they brought some slaves from Indonesia. Couldn’t write, no historical record. That’s the very last chapter I wrote, actually, because I was just putting it off, putting it off, [in worried voice] “I don’t know what to do!” The only historical record you get are the best and earliest ones, the abolitionists, what was done for the abolitionist effort by American negroes from the colonies or from the Caribbean.
THE VARSITYWhy did you have the guests?
DAVID MITCHELLI wanted to get them in, I wanted to get their stories. The thing about the structure is it looks simple, but it goes from being a one-stroke engine to a two-stroke engine: ta, ta — then Book Two — ta-ta, ta-ta, ta-ta — then Book Three — ta-ta-ta, ta-ta-ta, ta-ta-ta — you know, it accelerates. The guests are there — the Christians: fascinating, fascinating stage of the empire when in the early 1860s Japan was embarrassed into promulgating freedom of religion and 20 thousand, 30 thousand Christians sort of emerged from nowhere! Despite — up to that point, it was the world’s greatest attempt at a totalitarian state, the Tokugawa Shogun, they invented the police state, amazingly ruthless power — even they couldn’t stamp it out.
THE VARSITYIt’s almost comparable to North Korea.
DAVID MITCHELLI’ve used that comparison myself often. Without YouTube footage, without all the facts we know about North Korea, without Google Earth.
THE VARSITYThere was a specific passage I wanted to ask you about. It really struck me as being different from the rest of the book. It’s this opening —
DAVID MITCHELLDescription of Nagasaki?
THE VARSITYYeah, this one here.
DAVID MITCHELLI worked many afternoons on that.
CHAPTER THIRTY-NINEFROM THE VERANDA OF THE ROOM OF THE LAST CHRYSANTHEMUM, AT THE MAGISTRACY The ninth day of the ninth month Gulls wheel through spokes of sunlight over gracious roofs and dowdy thatch, snatching entrails at the marketplace and escaping over cloistered gardens, spike-topped walls, and triple-bolted doors. Gulls alight on whitewashed gables, creaking pagodas, and dung-ripe stables; circle over towers and cavernous bells and over hidden squares where urns of urine sit by covered wells, watched by mule drivers, mules, and wolf-snouted dogs, ignored by hunchbacked makers of clogs; gather speed up the stoned-in Nakashima River and fly beneath the arches of its bridges, glimpsed from kitchen doors, watched by farmers walking high, stony ridges. Gulls fly through clouds of steam from laundries’ vats; over kites unthreading corpses of cats; over scholars glimpsing truth in fragile patterns; over bathhouse adulterers; heartbroken slatterns; fishwives dismembering lobsters and crabs; their husbands gutting mackerel on slabs; woodcutters’ sons sharpening axes; candlemakers rolling waxes; flint-eyed officials milking taxes; etiolated lacquerers; mottled-skinned dryers; imprecise soothsayers; unblinking liars; weavers of mats; cutters of rushes; ink-lipped calligraphers dipping brushes; booksellers ruined by unsold books; ladies-in waiting; tasters; dressers; filching page boys; runny-nosed cooks; sunless attic nooks where seamstresses prick calloused fingers; limping malingers; swineherds; swindlers …
THE VARSITYThe cadence has this nursery rhyme quality to it.
DAVID MITCHELLYeah. It scans, I subsequently discovered, almost the same as “Night Mail” by Auden.
Dawn freshens, Her climb is doneDown towards Glasgow she descends,Towards the steam tugs yelping down a glade of cranesTowards the fields of apparatus, the furnacesSet on the dark plain like gigantic chessmen.…News circumstantial, news financial,Letters with holiday snaps to enlarge in,Letters with faces scrawled in the margin,Letters from uncles, cousins, and aunts,Letters to Scotland from the South of France…Thousands are still asleep,Dreaming of terrifying monstersOr of friendly tea beside the band in Cranston’s or Crawford’s
from “Night Mail” by WH AudenIt’s fun. It’s an explosion of the rule that prose mustn’t accidentally rhyme. It’s a piece of self-indulgence in what I think of as quite a tightly disciplined book. It’s baggy and long. All novels are baggy, but I cut off far far more fat from the book than there is left of it. Most important, it’s — are you old enough to have seen something for what you know will be the last time? A place?
[thinks for a few seconds]No.No, probably not. It’s probably ahead of you. Or — yeah, a person who you won’t see again.
DAVID MITCHELLWhen you see something consciously for the last time, it’s like seeing something for the first time but you see how it works, you see how it works. So if it’s a person dying in hospital, you see, just with x-ray perfect clarity, the nature of your relationship. Everything is revealed. It’s a little gift in a way. When you see the city for the last time, this cacophonous, chaotic mess that is a city, you see: this is how it works.
THE VARSITYIt’s all there.
DAVID MITCHELLThat’s why the world’s this masterpiece. It’s the only one that matters. And it’ll eat you up, too.
The girls are back
After a six year hiatus, Saddle-Creek Records’ beloved alternative rock duo, Azure Ray, return to the music scene. With their fourth album Drawing Down the Moon, Maria Taylor and Orenda Fink have just as much heartache and raw emotion to share, set to lovely harmonies and soothing melodies.Azure Ray were one of the first bands to record on Saddle Creek Records, along with Bright Eyes and Cursive. Azure Ray’s lyrics pull at the heart-strings and put to words universal heartache, giving a sweet tune to troubled thoughts.“Whatever it is we are going through — everyone is always going through something shitty — it is our way to be alone and write about it,” explains Fink. “Our songs are cathartic for us…”After attending a performing arts high school in Birmingham, the girls both went on to Athens, Georgia, where they met Eric Bachmann and Saddle Creek Records musician Andy LeMaster. Although the two met in high school in Alabama, the first time they ever wrote a song together was on the most recent album for the track “Dancing Ghosts.” After three releases as a band, Fink and Taylor branched off into solo projects, which were a bit different than their work together.“Surrendering to the nature of our collaboration creates its own unique sound and vibe. We had always worked together, so when we went solo we defined our individuality,” Fink says.“So this has been about finding our common ground again as a band,” Taylor smiles.“Riding that wave,” Fink adds. “It’s not easy to quantify how [our musical styles’ are] different; we can just feel that it’s different.”“Yours is more storytelling, mine is more poppy. When we come together, it comes from all over the body, mind, and soul,” Taylor muses.“Reconnecting with Maria was a big inspiration for our current album, and [upon] moving to L.A. I asked all my friends their favorite songs of all time, and so even though they weren’t my favorite necessarily, I was inspired by that,” Fink says.“I lived in L.A. for two and a half years, so I wrote about everything that was going on in my life at that time. It was not necessarily about writing about stuff from our past, but I did revisit the same emotions as I wrote about in songs before, if they still apply to what we are going through in the present,” Taylor adds.
Azure Ray are most recognized for the tracks “Sleep” and “Rise,” both off of their 2001 self-titled debut album. These songs are often used in television shows such as Grey’s Anatomy. “Sleep” was used to help score the film The Devil Wears Prada.These inclusions have not helped the band as much as this high caliber of exposure might suggest.“It hasn’t really changed things at all,” Taylor laughs, “I mean people buy single songs without looking into the artist a lot of the time. I’m guilty of it too sometimes, but it’s just frustrating because people often won’t know it’s even your song.”Azure Ray is the kind of band you can feel personally connected to; their music is emotionally raw, and incredibly intimate. It’s break-up music at its best.“Almost one hundred per cent of our songs are personal experiences, or the personal experiences of others,” Fink says.“When our lives get really boring — that’s when we’ll start writing fictional songs,” laughs Taylor.In the song “Larraine” from their new album, Fink sings a horrifying story of family abuse, inspired by Fink’s grandfather’s abusive relationship towards Fink’s mother.When asked if writing about these stories helps Fink to process emotionally, she explains: “I’m not sure how it does, but it just does… If I didn’t, I would definitely be seeing a psychiatrist — and I probably still should. Romanticizing dark things is a way of working through it and feeling better about it. When you are writing it, it’s really intense, but once it’s done you’ve given birth to it, and it is diffused out into the world.”“We recorded the new album in Asheville, North Carolina,” Fink recalls, “Eric Bachmann, our producer, set it up because he was friends with people in the area. He played a lot of the instruments with us during recording, and otherwise we just hired local people that played classical music.”Fink first met Bachmann when he was recording for his band Crooked Fingers’ debut album in Athens: “He needed a female back up singer,” Fink adds. “Right after that, he came to one of our shows.”Taylor continues: “Our friend had the idea for him to produce our songs, and we had been working on a side-project of songs we had no intention of recording… Our friend told us he was starting this label and that we should let his friend Bachmann produce it. We were so naïve, we didn’t question or research it, and we were just like okay! […] So then it turned out great, of course,” they both laugh. Warm Records went on to release their first two albums, Azure Ray and Burn and Shiver.“Other people have said you can hear the difference, but I’m unaware of it. Our friend said ‘this album sounds so Los Angeles’ and I never ever thought that. I’m too in the middle of it to see it,” Taylor said.“It’s mostly weather. In any town, the weather probably dictates the overall mood. But it definitely affects the songwriting to a certain degree,” Fink said.Fink has had an even larger change that has affected her songwriting, and that is her marriage to fellow Saddle Creek musician Todd Baechle of the band The Faint: “It affects it, it’s not easy. It’s funny to say that, because being happily married makes it too easy, because it makes it harder to be creative. Todd and I talk about this because we both suffer from it. It makes it more difficult because you definitely need to make a separation from your life. It’s a lot easier when you are alone to tap into a really unique and introspective microcosmic core, which is harder when you are used to completely sharing your life with someone, and be in certain moods, and be with them all the time and not have time alone… it makes it difficult but I wouldn’t give it up.”Although Azure Ray clearly fits into the niche of Saddle Creek independent rockers, they have a varied and classic list of influences: “We always go back to the same old ones — Nina Simone, Leonard Cohen, the Beatles, Fleetwood Mac, and Elliot Smith,” Taylor says. “We’ve been listening to a lot of our friends — Nik Freitas, Taylor Hollingsworth, Morgan Nagler,” she added. Freitas and Hollingsworth joined Bright Eyes’ Conor Oberst for his two releases with the Mystic Valley Band, which also included Jason Boesel of Rilo Kiley, and Bright Eyes mainstay Nate Walcott. Taylor and Fink became close with Morgan Nagler upon moving to L.A., as she is the lead singer of an independent rock band from the area called the Whispertown 2000. “I’d be making music no matter what I would be doing,” Taylor explains. “It’s what I do best and what I do most naturally. I love that I get to travel and meet people, and I love drinking red wine [laughs]. My job is: drinking red wine, meeting people, going to new cities and doing my hobby. Even collaborating with people, coming together in another way besides just talking — it’s this whole other way to communicate.”Although Taylor moved to a Vancouver-based record label called Nettwerrk, she still maintains ties with the Nebraska base. “The cool thing about Saddle Creek is that they are friends of mine, and they were friends before I started putting out records with them. There will always be a connection no matter if I keep putting out records with them. I will always feel a connection with the all Saddle Creek guys. I love the Nettwerrk people too. Generally I make sure I really like people before I work with them. They are so different — Nettwerrk is a bunch of awesome girls and Saddle Creek is a bunch of good ol’ boys.”“We are going to do separate things for a year before we do another Azure Ray record,” Taylor says. “Andy LeMaster and I will be putting our project on hold for a bit.” The two toured this summer to practice playing together again for their new project.
A good sport: Between now and spring training
While the baseball offseason is just heating up, there has already been a lot of chatter and no shortage of subjects to chatter about; there’s only more to come as the free agency period gets rolling. Chances are some of today’s major storylines are really going to take off between now and mid-February when pitchers and catchers report to sunny Florida and Arizona for spring training.Toronto native Joey Votto was the near-unanimous pick for National League MVP. The Cincinnati Reds’ first baseman has terrorized opposing pitching by leading or being at the top of most major offensive categories. It’s a feel-good story all around because as recently as a couple of years ago, Votto was best known for spending time on the disabled list for mental health issues.Over in the American League, Josh Hamilton took the MVP prize for his dominant offensive showing this year. His story is also one of battling demons — he was out of baseball for several years due to an alcohol and cocaine addiction, and has finally realized his potential.Former Blue Jay Roy Halladay captured a well-deserved National League Cy Young Award for being the best pitcher. ‘Doc’ truly deserves it, having tossed a regular season perfect game and a playoff no-hitter.‘King’ Felix Hernandez triumphed in the American League, in a rare victory for stats-geeks. Despite posting a mediocre 13–12 win-loss record, the baseball writers voting on the awards recognized that Hernandez’s other statistics were superb. His win-loss record only reflects how poorly the rest of his team played around him, and it’s nice that the voters separated that from his personal performance.
With the awards dished out, all eyes are now squarely on the free agent pool. The New York Yankees are leading the charge to acquire star left-handed pitcher Cliff Lee, who beat them in the playoffs as a member of the Texas Rangers. Look for him to get a contract in the range of five to seven years for about $20 million per year. The Rangers want him back, but the Yankees have the biggest chequing account.Derek Jeter, however, might not be as sure a bet as Lee to be a Yankee in 2011. He just finished a 10-year contract that he signed at a far younger age, and the Yankees are hesitant to pay him what they once did because, as his age increases, his skill set goes south. Don’t expect to see a nasty divorce in the end, but it could take these two a while to reconcile.To bring it back home, our very own Toronto Blue Jays have also found themselves in the thick of the rumour mill recently. In the most unexpected story of this offseason, the Jays have been linked to aging slugger Manny Ramirez, who wants to play for their new manager, John Farrell. Whether or not the Jays actually pull the trigger and bring Manny to the Rogers Centre remains to be seen, but it’ll sure be fun to watch this develop.
What happened to Bill C-393?
What has the support of 80 per cent of Canadians, could improve the lives of millions, yet is being destroyed in the House of Commons? The answer: Bill C-393.In observance of World AIDS Day 2010 on December 1, I’d like to share the true story of a groundbreaking Canadian idea to fight HIV/AIDS.Once upon a time lived an act called Jean Chrétien’s Pledge to Africa. Born on May 13, 2004, it was the first of its kind, representing a bold attempt to circumvent the World Trade Organization’s Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights in favour of greater global access to medication. That year, Minister of Foreign Affairs Bill Graham announced “Canada is very proud to be the first country to take concrete action to implement this important decision, which will go a long way toward improving global health.”In 2005, an all-party agreement transformed the act into the Canadian Access to Medicines Regime. Despite the nice words on paper, CAMR is fraught legislation, and has been from the start. CAMR poses numerous barriers to developing countries, and is not financially feasible for pharmaceutical companies.In the past five years, the only “success” CAMR has to its name is a sole shipment of only one kind of drug to a single country. Contrary to the view of many Conservative MPs, the isolated shipment to Rwanda in 2008 does not render CAMR a successful Canadian law. Far from facilitating access, CAMR is nearly unusable.CAMR’s practical failure was met with a hopeful alternative in May 2009. Bill C-393 is a private member’s bill submitted by New Democratic MP Judy Wasylycia-Leis. Bill C-393 is an act to amend CAMR in an effort to create a “one-licence solution.” Passing the bill into law would mean that a generic pharmaceutical company like Apotex Inc. would only require one licence in order to distribute its low-price drugs to multiple countries on multiple occasions. Apotex is Canada’s largest generic pharmaceutical manufacturer, and has made a pledge to export low-price drugs to developing countries should CAMR embrace the simpler “one-licence solution” proposed in Bill C-393.
Make no mistake: Bill C-393 has defied odds. Now in its second reading, the private member’s bill was submitted to the Standing Committee on Industry, Science, and Technology in March, 2010 once Parliament resumed after prorogation. Die-hard supporters include former prime minister Paul Martin, former UN special envoy for HIV/AIDS in Africa Stephen Lewis, and Founder of Dignitas International James Orbinski. The bill also has the support of 37 humanitarian organizations.To the immense shame of a Canadian legacy, Bill C-393 has now made a turn for the worst. On November 1, 2010, Liberal critic of industry, science, and technology Marc Garneau, amended the bill by eliminating the crucial clause which called for a “one-licence solution.”Garneau’s amendment undermined the entire process, rendering the bill meaningless and irrelevant. It is now time to go back to the drawing board for the MPs, activists, and humanitarian organizations who have fought endlessly for this life-saving bill.What’s more, Garneau’s rationale holds no water. The Liberal MP disregards the WTO’s Doha Declaration, which states that “the TRIPS Agreement does not and should not prevent Members from taking measures to protect public health.” This explicit statement welcomes the immense reform demanded by supporters of Bill C-393.According to UNAIDS, 10 million out of the 33.3 million people living with HIV still do not have access to medicine. The epidemic of HIV/AIDS is a long-proven threat to global public health and must take precedence. Intellectual Property Rights need to take the backseat.What can we do in the face of Canada’s frustrating double standard?“Shut the F#$% up.”Remember Senator Nancy Ruth’s notorious statement prior to this past summer’s G8 Summit? After Canada announced its exclusion of abortion from the country’s Maternal Health Initiative, Ruth cautioned development organizations to keep quiet.“This is not about women’s health in this country,” Ruth said. Her words depict the precise problem of the Canadian double standard.Is Canada — a country dedicated to the right to universal health care — truly concerned with the health care of non-Canadian adults and children who live with HIV/AIDS?Though it looks grim, it’s not the end of the story for Bill C-393. Its survival depends on our own political will to speak up.Although last May Senator Ruth warned us to “be quiet for five weeks,” this December we need to remind ourselves of the words of Canadian AIDS activist Stephen Lewis.“Every day counts.”