Headlines on trial: The diluted truth

We live in a society that embraces things for being “alternative.” And that’s fantastic. If that wasn’t the case, American Idol would be the only show on TV, and Radiohead’s new album (or the seven before it) would hardly be the talk of the town. In other words, the world would be a far less interesting place.

But the alternative route becomes a problem when an idea gains merit simply for being unorthodox — when going against the status quo is sufficient to garner credibility. The field of homeopathy has been riding this wave for more than 200 years.

In the popular understanding, homeopathy is readily lumped in with all things alternative and “natural.” Yet, rather than being a hazy branch of complementary medicine, it is actually a field with a unique history and a wealth of literature to boot. Its skeptics are fierce, and its proponents still fiercer. Welcome to Homeopathy 101.

When the 18th century drew to a close, the German physician Samuel Hahnemann came up with a rather outlandish notion: that the best way to treat a disease was to use a substance that induces its symptoms in a healthy individual. Considering that his peers were busy bloodletting and prescribing leech therapy, this idea may not have seemed too far from the norm.

The theory was inspired by Hahnemann’s reaction to cinchona bark, a common treatment for malaria at the time. Since ingesting cinchona made him feel “languid and drowsy,” symptoms which he felt were similar to those of malaria, Hahnemann concluded that this property must be essential to its medicinal effects. Thus, the field of homeopathy was born.

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But there was a problem here. People were probably not too fond of taking medicines which had been specifically chosen to induce the symptoms they were already suffering from. To get around this inconvenient hurdle, Hahnemann added a further innovation to his recipe. He decided that the more you dilute a substance, the more you can “potentize” its healing abilities.

Any old dilution wouldn’t do the trick. In order to be effective, this procedure had to be carried out by administering ten hard strikes against an elastic object (a process referred to as “succussion”). Only then would you be able to activate the “spirit-like essence” of the substance being diluted.

What’s more, it’s remarkable how much diluting it takes to release the genie in the homeopathic bottle. We’re not talking about a splash of water in our whisky here. Homeopaths measure dilution on a centesimal (or C) scale, which involves diluting a substance by one part in 100 at every step. Given that your typical homeopathic treatment comes at a dilution of 30C, that equates to a dilution factor of 10 to the power of 60.

To put this in perspective, skeptics have noted that a dilution of 12C is the equivalent of adding a pinch of salt to the Atlantic Ocean. Quite some splash of water.

It’s convenient, then, that central to the current homeopathic philosophy is the idea that the elaborate process of succussion leaves an imprint of the diluted substance on water, or a “water memory.” The fact that this notion is widely refuted by physicists, chemists, and common sense alike is apparently of little concern to the homeopath.

Today, the concepts of “like curing like,” potentization, and extreme dilution persist largely unchanged within the homeopathy industry. In fact, they form the basis of a huge number of “remedies” in the homeopathic arsenal.

Whether or not you find these ideas credible is a matter of individual judgment. Personally, I like to have at least 12 molecules of active ingredient in any medicine I take. But that’s me. The seeming impossibility of the method should not be the sole reason for dismissing homeopathy. After all, there are more things in heaven and earth than are dreamt of in our philosophy.

What really matters is the clinical evidence for homeopathy. Specifically, how does it measure up under the inspection of a controlled clinical trial?

When it comes to this pivotal question, there is a huge amount of evidence out there — enough to give ammunition to both sides of the debate. Even for the hardened observer, the prospect of trying to unravel the key message from this tangled web of data can be rather daunting.

To help resolve this issue, it’s time to introduce another key concept of clinical science: the meta-analysis. Don’t be put off by the scary terminology. A meta-analysis essentially involves combining all the data from multiple, small trials into a single coherent analysis, then seeing which way the weight of evidence leans. It’s a pretty logical concept, and it might not be too unfamiliar. Rotten Tomatoes has been doing exactly the same thing for film reviews for years.

Crucially, a meta-analysis can reveal a significant clinical effect for a particular intervention when each individual trial had failed to recognize it. Alternatively, this method can dispel the apparent virtues of a treatment when some of the smaller trials might suggest otherwise. This makes it the perfect tool for examining the clinical evidence on homeopathy.

So what do the meta-analyses (and there have been several) have to say on the matter?

Perhaps the most comprehensive of these studies, examining 110 independent trials on homeopathy, was published by Professor Matthias Egger in The Lancet in 2005. In each trial, the therapeutic effect of a homeopathic treatment was measured (basically, did the intervention do anything?). But perhaps more importantly, the quality of each study was scrutinized. For instance, how big was it? Was it randomized? And was it blinded? All important stuff, which can drastically influence the outcome of a clinical investigation.

Here’s what it boiled down to (cue drum roll): while small, low quality trials often reveal a therapeutic effect for homeopathy, the better the study, the smaller this effect tends to be. And if you look exclusively at the largest, most scrupulous trials, homeopathy performs no better than placebo.

When it comes to issues of public health, we deserve the undiluted truth. If a remedy does not contain a single molecule of active ingredient, and cannot weather the scrutiny of a controlled clinical trial, it probably shouldn’t form the basis of a multi-billion dollar global industry.

Conventional medicine is far from flawless. It is built, however, on a system of constant re-evaluation, in which obsolete and ineffective practices are cast aside. Somehow, homeopathy has escaped the scrapheap.

Read Headlines on trial: The power of evidence

New HIV vaccine?

Engineers from MIT have designed a new type of vaccine that could potentially be used to prevent HIV and malaria safely and much more effectively. These new particles are described in the February 20 issue of Nature Materials.

The particles are formed out of concentric spheres made of fat. They carry synthetic versions of virus protein particles in their core. These nano-sized lipid-based vaccines can elicit the same strong immune response as a live virus vaccine, but are much safer due to their synthetic virus particles.

Vaccines work by priming your immune system. By exposing the immune system to an infectious agent, it can more easily recognize and destroy the same pathogen during a later encounter. Vaccines are designed to incite the production of either T cells (which destroy infected cells) or B cells (which secrete antibodies to target pathogens).

However, a vaccine for HIV — much like those for polio and smallpox — requires the activation of a subset of T cells called the killer T cells, using a weakened or disabled virus. Creating an HIV vaccine using a live virus is difficult because it is hard to render it harmless.

Some vaccines, like the diphtheria vaccine, can use recombinant or synthetic proteins, or molecules normally made by the virus. However, this route is inadequate for HIV or Hepatitis B vaccines, because the synthetic particles don’t elicit the same strong T cell response.
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Recently, scientists have tried working with the idea of encasing these synthetic vaccines in liposomes, or fatty droplets, which resemble normal viruses and can help stimulate killer T cells. Normally, however, these fatty droplets are unstable in bodily fluids.

Postdoctoral fellow James Moon, associate professor Darrell Irvine, and their colleagues at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have developed a more stable way to assemble liposome nanoparticles. The virus antigen particles are packaged in multiple concentric liposomal spheres. The headgroups of adjacent lipid bilayers are then crosslinked, a technique to make them more stable and less likely to break down upon injection. The lipid bilayer structure allows these nanoparticles to be absorbed by your cells. Once inside, the harmless synthetic virus particles are released in the presence of enzymes that break down fat, called endolysosomal lipases. This provokes the killer T-cell response.

Moon and his colleagues used these nanoparticles to test the T-cell response in mice, to a protein called ovalbumin. They found that, after three immunizations using low doses of the vaccine, up to 30 per cent of all killer T cells in the mice were specific to the vaccine protein.

These results are comparable to vaccines that use live viruses, but they are much safer to prepare and use. The vaccines also elicited a strong antibody response. Researchers have yet to discover whether these vaccines can elicit the same strong response in humans.

So far, these newly constructed nano-sized lipid based vaccines are making for a potential safe delivery system for vaccines against hard-to-handle viruses like HIV or hepatitis B. Irvine and his colleagues have since moved on to try and develop these vaccines to immunize people against malaria, HIV, and cancer.

Science in brief

Emotion may regulate ethical behaviour

A study at UTSC has found that people behave more ethically than predicted when they are faced with a moral dilemma, thanks to their emotions.

The experiment consisted of participants divided into three groups. Experimenters had one group complete a math test. Another group received the same test, but also had the opportunity to cheat. The last group was simply asked if they thought they would cheat on the questions if given the chance.

The results showed that members of the third group claimed they would cheat more often than test-takers with the actual option to cheat. The study attributed this ethical behaviour to heightened emotions, indicated by factors such as sweaty palms and increased heart rate. Researchers observed these physical signs in the test-taking group with the moral decision to make.

While emotions led to more ethical actions in the test-taking situation, the lead author comments that emotions can also produce the opposite result — less moral behavior — depending on the situation.— Kimberly Shek

Source: Association for Psychological Science

The perils of a fake smile

A new study by Michigan State University business professor Brent Scott and graduate student Christopher Barnes, has uncovered the dangers of a fake smile. They found that employees who had to fake smile throughout their work day — which is often the case for customer service employees — also had worsened moods. This caused them to withdraw from their work, resulting in reduced productivity and emotional exhaustion.

The results were reversed for those who smiled authentically. Those who thought positive thoughts about the situation or who recalled pleasant memories were able to improve their mood and withdraw less.

The study is published in the February 2011 issue of the Academy of Management Journal, and examined a group of bus drivers for two weeks. The researchers examined the effects of “surface acting” — such as fake smiling — versus “deep acting,” which cultivated positive emotions to induce a more authentic smile.

The results and the effects of deep acting were stronger in women, although they did not explain reasons why this might be the case. They did, however, find a caveat: while deep acting improved workers moods, it was only short-term, and led to feelings of being inauthentic in the long term.— Kim Tran

Source: Michigan State University

Face to face with Yellow Face

“As an Asian-Canadian I am faced with the personal question of my place in the world,” says Andrew Cheng, production dramaturg of David Henry Hwang’s Yellow Face, in the play’s program notes. “While I do identify as Asian, I have always been, simply put: Canadian.” In Yellow Face, Hwang confronts the issue of racial identity, asking whether it is chosen by the individual or chosen for them at birth. Yellow Face is a part-autobiographical, part-fictional illustration of the racial tensions Hwang, an Asian American, has faced during his career as a playwright, and an examination of the place of Asian identity in American culture.

The play illustrates Hwang’s career through email messages, newspaper reviews, and voicemails that he received in response to his plays. Cast members Charmaine Lau, Daniel Krolik, David Fujino, and Emily Opal Smith — each assuming multiple identities of journalists and associates of Hwang, recite abrupt monologues that depict messages he recieved, making smooth transitions as they move from one identity to another. Ben Wong, who plays Hwang; Carl, who plays the announcer and a troublemaking journalist; and Kristoffer Pedlar, who plays Marcus; walk off the stage at each scene’s end.

Ben Wong effectively portrays two different roles — the Hwang engaged in the events of the play and Hwang the commentator. As the former, Wong convincingly recites Hwang’s passionate bursts of anger, his facial expressions illustrating the tensions the character faces throughout the play. Portraying the latter, Wong shows a clear disengagement from his character and speaks to the audience casually, assuming the role of a man commenting on the events of the past.
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Hwang’s relationship with Marcus serves as a central plot. Hwang hires Marcus to play the starring role in his production, “Face Value,” thinking that Marcus is Asian. Hwang discovers that Marcus is really Caucasian and, worried that the public will learn Marcus’ true racial identity, Hwang fires Marcus from the cast. Still assuming an Asian identity, Marcus continues his career, achieving fame on Broadway. Hwang and Marcus’ tense relationship worsens. Hwang struggles to show the press Marcus’ true racial identity.

Another aspect of the plot is the Asian espionage scandal of the late 1990s, which Hwang narrates using newspaper article fragments and, in one scene, an actual script from an FBI interrogation of an Asian American accused of espionage. Hwang is brought into the scandal when his father, the manager of a bank branch, is accused of espionage. Commenting on the reputation of Asian identity in American culture, this act shows Hwang’s struggle to fight the government’s allegations against his father.

Yellow Face effectively portrays the tensions existing between American culture and Asian racial identity that Hwang has faced. Using himself as the subject, Hwang presents a believable story of his moral and professional struggle with his Asian identity and with the racial identity of Marcus. “Do we identify as mixed race or highlight our heritage as we feel it is at our core?” Andrew Cheng asks. “Will there be a future where race doesn’t matter? Is the resistance to assimilation self-imposed segregation?” Yellow Face does not answer these questions but rather looks to a future in which answers may be found.

Read our interview with David Henry Hwang here

Extraordinary states of matter at the core of star

Last week, NASA scientist Dany Page, working in tandem with astronomers from all over North America discovered the first evidence for the existence of superfluids in nature. The Chandra X-ray observatory observed the remnants of a 330-year old supernova from the star Cassiopeia A, or Cas A, with important results for science.

Superfluids are an alternate state of matter with extraordinary properties: zero viscosity, zero entropy, and perfect thermal conductivity. This means that, while known superfluids may look like a liquid, they spread out on any surface they touch without restriction — including up and over walls. They do this by overcoming the forces of friction and gravity. No matter how far a superfluid spreads out, the temperature within the entire fluid remains perfectly even across the substance without energy loss.

The property of theoretical zero viscosity leading to superfluids was first hypothesised by John Allen, Don Misener, and Pyotr Kapitsa in 1937. However, only the direct observations of this state of matter earned a Nobel Prize for L.D. Landau in 1962. On Earth, superfluids never occur in nature and can only be produced artificially under extreme conditions, with laboratory temperatures reaching near absolute zero, or -273.15 degrees celcius.

Canadian astronomer Craig Heinke at the University of Alberta, and British astronomer Wynn Ho, found that the neutron star resulting from the supernova Cas A is experiencing a rapid decline in temperature. A neutron star, often the final outcome of such supernovas, is a ball of hyper-dense matter. It is formed from neutrons being compacted as closely as possible, and is so dense that just a teaspoon of it would weigh more than a billion tons. In this extremely dense, heavy star, scientists could not account for the rapid decline in temperature using a normal explanation.
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Instead, on February 25, Page and colleagues proposed in Physical Review Letters that this decline is best understood by the formation of a neutron superfluid at the very core of the star. This is possible because the intense pressure and gravity at the heart of the super-dense neutron star raises the critical point of this state of matter from absolute zero to nearly one billion degrees.

Cas A offers a rare chance for scientists to observe not only the natural occurrence of superfluids, but a new type of superfluid. Since Cas A is so young, it may help identify the formation of these unique stellar objects and some of their properties. Specifically, astronomers suspect that there is a relationship between this superfluid core, “glitches” (sudden increases in rotation speed), pulsation, energy outbursts, and neutron stars’ magnetic fields.

The ten-dollar wine snob: Santa Carolina Shiraz

Santa Carolina Shiraz

$7.95 at the LCBO

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I don’t generally like shiraz, but this week I think I’ll be drinking a lot of it. Along with being the sixth most populous city in Iran and the capital of Fars Province, shiraz is a dark-skinned grape with an ancestry in the Rhone region of Southeastern France. The grape first came to prominence in France when it was blended to create bordeaux and made it to Australia in the 1830s, where it is also very popular.

A shiraz is a very powerful, full-bodied wine. Similar to pinot grigio, reviewed last week, the flavours can vary based on technique, climate, and soil. There will normally be hints of a berry or floral aroma, but what you’re more than guaranteed to notice is the taste of black pepper. This is the kind of wine that makes you cough in the most uncouth of manners at the winery; my first memory of it is when it shocked me into repenting when I tried it in church.

People will also describe it as having an earthy or leathery taste. What does this mean? If you cannot run out to the store this moment, take an old belt and bury it the garden patch, then quickly dig it up (you wouldn’t want it to be overdone), and lick it. Lick it good. Ladies and gentlemen, I present to you an earthy and leathery taste. If you ever order the house red at Pauper’s Pub you’ll realize that your old belt might just be an upgrade.

The Santa Carolina Shiraz is among the better shiraz wines you’ll find. As we learned previously, South America is a fantastic source of reasonably priced wines. This specimen has light berry hints and — you guessed it — some earthy tones. Best enjoyed during an indecisive UTSU election as you’re waiting for the CRO.

The healthiest breakfast

When it comes to breakfast foods, there are many great healthy choices. As a result, it’s hard to say which choice is the absolute best. Ultimately, it is up to you to choose what suits you. Considering that the average person should consume approximately 2000 calories, and less than 2300mg of sodium daily, it’s up to you to find the best breakfast out there — so why not get started, bright and early?

OATMEAL

100 calories, 2.6g of fiber per 3/4 cup with 1% milk (110 calories per cup)

You’re probably not worried about your blood cholesterol levels yet, but oatmeal is renowned for its cholesterol-lowering effects. But that’s not its only benefits. Since oatmeal is high in fiber, it will keep you full for hours — trust me.

Though steel-cut oats are better than large-flake oats, the latter holds the advantage of being quickly cooked in the microwave. If you’re not a fan of oatmeal’s texture, keep in mind that the length of time and amount of water you add will determine the consistency. If you prefer your oatmeal thicker, opt for less water and a longer cooking time. On the other hand, if you prefer it more “soupy,” try adding more water, and cook it for less time.

Oatmeal can be made even more nutritious by adding fruit, seeds, and cinnamon. If you need to sweeten your oatmeal, try coconut shavings instead of sugar.

COMMERCIAL CEREAL

92-245 calories, 1-17g of sugar, 0-12g of fiber per half cup

Sugar is the main problem with commercial cereals. When it comes to gauging how much sugar is in your cereal, just remember that one standard sugar cube (measuring approximately one centimeter by one centimeter) is approximately 4 grams of sugar. Though eating a large amount of sugar might sound like it would give you lots of energy, the mid-morning crash that ensues can be avoided by choosing cereals with more fiber and protein.

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EGGS

Hard boiled egg: 80 calories, 6g protein, 5g fat

Fried eggs: 173 calories, 12g protein, 14g fat

Eggs make a great breakfast because of their high protein content. But of course, depending on how you cook it, they can contain quite a range of calories.

PEANUT BUTTER

160 calories per 2 tablespoons on Whole-Wheat Toast (86 calories 2.4g of fiber) or a Bagel (195 calories)

Peanut butter or alternative nut butters are by far the best thing you can spread on your bread. Though butter, cream cheese, and peanut butter may contain comparable amounts of calories and fat, the crucial difference lies in the type of fat. Both butter and cream cheese contain saturated fat — and the latter can contain trans fats too. Peanut butter, on the other hand, contains healthy unsaturated fats and lots of protein to keep you full. When it comes to your choice of bread, always opt for a whole grain choice.

LESS DESIRABLE CHOICES

Examples of less desirable breakfast options include croissants (231 calories, 12g of fat), muffins (350 calories, up to16g of sugar and 22g of fat), bacon (3 slices contain 130 calories and 554mg of sodium) and things like frozen waffles and pancakes (they’re void of any nutritional benefits and loaded with sugar).

SKIPPING BREAKFAST

The worst choice you can make is to skip breakfast. At the very least, grab a fruit before starting your day.

UTSU staffer challenges incumbents

After a year and a half of working as a casual staff member behind the counter at UTSU, Nathaniel Tang is running against Unite for Action candidate Corey Scott for the position of VP Internal and Services. Scott is currently a member of the UTSU executive, serving as VP Campus Life.

After StudentsFirst dropped out of the election this week, he became both the only independent candidate and the lone executive candidate running against Unite for Action. Tang says his campaign platform is based around five priorities for reform.

“My first priority is fiscal/financial transparency. I would like to propose posting up executive and committee expenses on the web, so students can see expenses on a weekly, monthly, or bi-monthly basis,” said Tang whose second priority centres around information accessibility. “Currently, there are very few documents online. I want to, at every stage that a budget is proposed, post […] that budget online; be it a preliminary one, a finalized one, or a revised one, as well as financial statements from the last five years.”

“My third priority is electoral fairness and reform,” said Tang. “One of the key things I want to do with this priority is force a mandatory registration on campaigners and people campaigning on behalf of the campaigners. That will make things easier for the CRO with managing the election. It also gives candidates reliability on who can speak on their behalf. Candidates can be responsible for something that was said but not authorized by them.”

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Tang says that his fourth and fifth pillars are centred around democratic renewal and health and dental insurance reform. He wants to introduce both ranked election ballots and speed up the insurance refund period.

Tang believes his policies bring fresh new ideas compared to those of Corey Scott and the Unite For Action slate. “I’m bringing new ideas to the table,” said Tang. “I’m not recycling ideas that I’ve constantly presented at every single election every year. [I’m presenting] practical reforms that we can take to improve the internal structure of the student union.”

He says his campaign has not changed despite the recent boycotting of the election by the StudentsFirst slate. “I think it’s unfortunate that they decided to do the boycott. I don’t believe running with a slate of four would have impeded them in any way. That is their prerogative though.”

Tang also wants to improve the relationship between students and UTSU. “There is sort of a disconnect between the students union and the student,” said Tang. “Often, it’s the student union’s fault for not communicating properly to the [students], or not replying with prompt or proper responses.”

He says he has experienced slow email response times from the current union. “I’ve had this experience where I sent an email to an executive, and they hadn’t replied to my email. I would like to receive reassurance emails, to reassure those who have questions, to know their emails have been received.”

Despite not running for a slate, Tang claims he is ready to work in partnership with the United for Action slate. “I’m prepared to work with the slate. If I’m elected, I’m […] excited to work with people who have also been elected.”