The Prize:The 1954 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to Linus Pauling “for his research into the nature of the chemical bond and its application to the elucidation of the structure of complex substances.”The Science:Linus Pauling has been honoured by many as the greatest modern chemist. A Nobel Prize was definitely in his destiny, but Pauling himself wasn’t sure what he would win it for.His contribution to chemistry is a story of a career’s worth, with no single great achievement—something that Alfred Nobel had stipulated as necessary for Nobel Prize–winning work.Pauling’s interest in the chemical bond started during undergrad. At this time, the model for the chemical bond, the “glue” that keeps two atoms in a molecule bound to each other, was thought of as “hooks and eyes” like the clasps found at the top of some zippers. Every atom had a certain number of hooks and eyes to attach to other atoms, and joining a hook and an eye from different atoms resulted in the formation of a chemical bond.Pauling’s own work on chemical bonds was highly influenced by the work of Gilbert Lewis and Irving Langmuir (Nobel Laureate, 1932). The Lewis and Langmuir model of the atom posited that the electrons that orbit the nucleus of an atom can be found in orbital shells: the first shell contains two electrons, with the remaining electrons found in subsequent, larger shells that hold eight electrons each. In their model, the atom is “happiest” when the outermost shell is full. Thus, an atom that has seven electrons in its outermost shell will bond to an atom with only one electron in its outer shell, allowing them to “share” that electron, and making both atoms “happier.”Of course, this model was too simplistic to explain what chemists at the time knew about atoms. The scientific community was already beginning to think of electrons as waves and not as moons orbiting a nuclear planet.After completing his PhD in 1925, Pauling spent time in Europe on a Guggenheim Fellowship working with quantum theory giants Arnold Sommerfield, Niels Bohr (Nobel Laureate, 1922), and Erwin Schrödinger (Nobel Laureate, 1933). Exposure to the world of theoretical physics allowed Pauling to start his own lab at Caltech in a very new field, quantum chemistry, where he could explore the connection between quantum mechanics and the chemical bond.Pauling’s Nobel-winning work began in 1928, when he published a theory on the nature of the carbon bond. His paper hypothesized that the formation of chemical bonds resulted in the exchange of energy, an idea originally proposed by Walter Heitler and Fritz London. This theory addressed a long-standing debate between physicists and chemists over carbon’s bonding geometry. The paper did not include any mathematics to back up Pauling’s hypothesis, but he set out to prove it mathematically and finally did, three years later.In 1931, Pauling wrote the first in a series of seven papers describing “The Nature of the Chemical Bond.” Using quantum mechanics and wave functions, Pauling derived the strengths and arrangements of bonds and predicted other properties of bonds not yet discovered. “I was so excited and happy, I think I stayed up all night, making, writing out, solving the equations, which were so simple that I could solve them in a few minutes,” he said at the time.Pauling was one of the few chemists familiar with quantum theory, making his theories easily 10 years ahead of everyone else’s. Einstein famously said, “It was too complicated for me,” to a reporter after sitting in on a seminar given by Pauling in 1931.Each successive article in the “Nature of the Chemical Bond” series built upon the theories of part one, and described a different aspect of the chemical bond. The third paper in the series outlined the differences between covalent bonds (when two atoms share an electron virtually equally) and ionic bonds (when one atom takes the lion’s share of the electron time). He demonstrated that bonds in intermediate states between covalent and ionic could be explained by quantum mechanics and chemical observations.Pauling’s fourth paper in the series described the famous electronegativity scale. Unlike the other papers which were heavy on theoretical physics, this paper was intuitive and the science was easy for other chemists to understand. Pauling’s electronegativity scale is a measure of how hard an atom can “tug” on an electron shared in a chemical bond. When an atom with a high “tugging” power shares an electron with a lower pull, the bond they share is more likely to be ionic. The scale allowed chemists to predict what type of bond two atoms will form when they react.In the early 1930s, Pauling was publishing an average of one manuscript every five weeks—an impressive rate even today. Throughout this prolific period, he also devoted much time to teaching. He was known as an excellent lecturer and could make even the most difficult concepts easy to understand.His teaching influenced another of his major works, The Nature of the Chemical Bond and the Structure of Molecules and Crystals: An Introduction to Modern Structural Chemistry, a textbook aimed at graduate-level chemistry students that revolutionized the way chemistry was taught. It focused on how the quantum mechanics of a chemical bond can influence molecular structure and therefore the behaviour and properties of molecules. Max Perutz (Nobel Laureate, 1962) said that Pauling’s textbook showed that “chemistry could be understood rather than being memorized.” It quickly became accepted as a standard text and was translated into many languages.The next stage of Pauling’s career moved away from chemistry and into biology. He made significant contributions to protein chemistry, genetics, and immunology. With others he determined the molecular mechanism behind sickle cell anemia. Pauling also contributed to the discovery of secondary structure elements in proteins that allow proteins to fold into functional forms. James Watson and Francis Crick rushed their work to explain the structure of DNA because they perceived that Pauling might discover it before them—they beat him and won the Nobel Prize in 1962. He also made valuable contributions to the war effort during the Second World War.Yet, the Nobel Prize eluded him. It was only in 1954—over 20 years after his original contributions—that Pauling was finally honoured by the Nobel committee. Pauling first heard about his award from a reporter, first asking “what did I get it for?” He was happy to hear that he had won the award for his work since 1928. The committee had bent the rules and awarded Pauling an award for years of achievement.Pauling’s influence on almost every branch of science is undeniable. He revolutionized the way scientists thought about chemistry. Francis Crick called Pauling “the father of molecular biology” and Pauling’s name can be heard in the same breath of such great thinkers as Newton, Galileo, and Einstein.What you may not know:After years of waiting for his Nobel in Chemistry, Pauling was soon afterwards awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1962. The second award made Pauling the only scientist to be singly awarded a Nobel Prize in two different categories.This Nobel Prize was awarded to Pauling for his work from 1946 onwards in campaigning against the building, testing, and use of nuclear arms in war. In 1946, Pauling, Einstein, and seven other scientists founded the Emergency Committee of Atomic Scientists to prevent the use of nuclear weapons from ever again creating the disasters seen in both Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan.With aid and inspiration from his wife, Ava Helen Pauling, he wrote an appeal against nuclear weapons that was signed by 2,000 American scientists and 8,000 scientists abroad to petition the American government and the United Nations. Pauling wrote the book No More War! describing the collection of these signatures. He and Ava worked tirelessly on organizing conferences to promote peace.For his work against nuclear weapons, Pauling was stripped of his passport by the American government and prevented from attending a scientific lecture tour of Europe because he was seen as a communist sympathizer and was described by the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee as “the number one scientific name in virtually every major activity of the Communist peace offensive” in America. He was reissued his passport in order to attend his Chemistry Nobel Prize ceremony in 1954.The Chair of the committee concluded his presentation speech to Pauling with the words: “Should Linus Pauling, through his tireless efforts, have contributed—if only a little—to restoring to science its ideals, then his campaign will in itself have been of such value that we living today can scarcely appreciate the full extent of the debt we owe him.”
Nobelmen: Chemist Linus Pauling rewarded for over two decades of scientific breakthroughs
Our year in lists
Blockhead—The Music SceneBlockhead is a young grasshopper in the giant scheme of sampling but it wouldn’t be far-fetched to say that he is approaching mastery. The Music Scene, his fourth solo album, can slay the mightiest of instrumental music snobs with its rolling rhythms, obscure vocal samples, and blending of genres. This is most obvious on a track like “The Daily Routine,” featuring street shouting that moves from a driving, devilish chant to a beautifully jazzy, almost Latin-like, rhythm and finally to a dreamy, electronic beat. The seamless interaction of these elements throughout the album is the mark of a genius.
—Lola LandekicGirls—AlbumIn these troubled times, who better to turn to for solace than an unemployed, shaggy haired fuck-up bumming around San Francisco trying to forget a childhood spent in the Children of God cult? In 2009, Christopher Owens was the voice of a generation, tired and disappointed and maybe a little stoned, trying not to be bored with everything—the 00’s very own Paul Westerberg. But there’s still hope: the sunshine surf riffs, the promises of ex-lovers to be “friends forever,” and the paean of the so-catchy-Iggy-would-be-proud “Lust for Life”: “If I really tried with all of my heart, I could make a brand new start in love with you.” It may be a “Hellhole Ratrace,” but if we want to do some dancing too, here’s the soundtrack.—WYNDHAM BETTENCOURT-MCCARTHYHEALTH—Get ColorTwo years after the overplayed “Crimewave” was appropriated by Toronto’s
electro-darlings Crystal Castles, HEALTH’s sophomore release stands strong and separate from most of the electronic hipster bullshit they’re associated with. Expanding on their self-titled debut, Get Color explores the dynamics and crescendos not fully realized in their first effort. Tracks such as “Die Slow” (which boasts one of 2009’s heaviest intro riffs) and “We Are Water” have a more self-contained and finished feel to them. The album is decidedly more focused, and admittedly a little darker.—DAVID PIKEConverge—Axe to FallThe fragmentation and specialization of heavy and aggressive music, particularly in the last year, has become almost unbearable as bands create disparate genres differentiated only by particular riffs, time signatures, and tonal qualities. Their 2009 release Axe to Fall recalls the ferocity of 2001’s masterful Jane Doe (which still overshadows their subsequent releases), adding a more timeless, classic metal feel—all the while maintaining Jacob Bannon’s signature vocal style and Ballou/Newton’s unmistakable song writing.—DPDirty Projectors—Bitte OrcaThose irresistible grooves, those acrobatic vocals. If Paul Simon and David Byrne and Mariah Carey had a threesome, something like Bitte Orca could be the result. It’s more likely, though, that it could only be the product of Dave Longstreth’s genius, already demonstrated on 2007’s shimmering Rise Above. No band alive plays with rhythm the way the Projectors do—just try not to feel the beat of “No Intention” in your hips. Even the songs packed with sounds and short guitar thrash always have a cleanness and precision. Tambourine, reeds, and driving drums pulsate the elasticity of 2009’s best song, “Stillness is the Move,” with Amber Coffman’s voice building a bridge from “a diner in some remote city off the highway” straight up to heaven.—WBMGrizzly Bear—VeckatimestThe pop gem of “Two Weeks” caught our ears first, sailing on choir harmonies so effortless they might send Brian Wilson back to bed yet again. But the magic truly happens in the vast soundscape of melancholy that builds throughout the album, quietly exploding on the magnificently orchestral “While You Wait for the Others.” Everyone has had a broken heart, but few musicians capture loss with such eloquence while saying so little. Thom Yorke’s robot heart dreams about making music this affecting, where the simplest words and sounds coalesce into an island of sentiment and longing, drifting in that cold East coast sea.—WBMWe Were Promised Jetpacks—These Four WallsThe introductory track, “It’s Thunder and It’s Lightning,” was proof enough that We Were Promised Jetpacks is taking both indie rock and Britpop in a completely new direction. Reminiscent of American Midwest indie rock bands from the 1990s, Jetpacks have produced a consistently driving, yet inoffensive or abrasive gem of a record that is simultaneously introverted and extroverted. Tracks like “Quiet Little Voices” get one’s heart going without fail, and “An Almighty Thud” resonates far deeper for me sonically or personally than many of the records making everyone else’s year-end lists.—DPLittle Girls—ConceptsLittle Girls seems to have snuck up on this city like a fog: heavy, enveloping, and more than a little mysterious. Though the album can be repetitive, the allure of Concepts comes from its combination of inarticulate lyrics, sharp fuzz, and sweet drum lines. It’s a hard little gem of noise and pop that stokes the embers of Joy Division’s legacy.—LLPhoenix—Wolfgang Amadeus Phoenix2009’s theoretical “best new band” was actually on their fourth album this year, but buzzy synth anthem “1901” made the masses pay attention to Phoenix like never before. The band’s poppiest effort to date, Wolfgang Amadeus Phoenix played into eighties revivalism with massive bursts of energy and charisma. “Lisztomania” was a particularly appropriate soundtrack for a John Hughes mash-up video.—Shoshana Wasser (because they couldn’t agree on a 10th album!)Ume—Sun-shower EPSPIN picked Ume in March 2009 as one of seven undiscovered bands worth a listen and I completely agree! Dear readers, get a clue: this band deserves your attention. Ume’s Sunshower EP couples rough instrumentation with a soft delicacy that is wonderfully palatable. The only problem with it is that it’s too short. If you like Sonic Youth, The Pixies or cute girls, don’t sleep on this band.—LLHonourable MentionsWyndham: Sunset Rubdown, Neko Case
Lola: The Xx, Jay Reatard
Dave: Volcano Choir, Mono
A Serious ManFollowing their nihilistic Burn After Reading, the Coen Brothers’ film about a Minnesota physics professor (Michael Stuhlbarg) and his attempt to find God in the wilderness of his compounding misfortunes is likely their most personal and insightful movie. Director of photography Roger Deakins finds sharp beauty in the greys and blues of the film’s suburban wasteland.—Chris BerubeAntichristFor his first horror film, Lars von Trier tackled the most frightening topic of all: his own Catholic guilt. Opening with a scenario of deep sexual shame, Antichrist becomes a painful religious parable about a world where all creation is evil, and woman, the giver of life, is the evilest of all. Anchored by extraordinary performances by Willem Dafoe and Charlotte Gainsbourg, Antichrist is an unrelenting psychological horror film and an intensely personal artistic statement.—Will SloanThe Bad Lieutenant—Port of Call: New OrleansHire Werner Herzog to direct a standard police procedural drama and you get…a Werner Herzog film. In collaboration with a hilariously unhinged Nicolas Cage giving his best performance in years, Herzog took the framework of a cops-and-robbers drama and turned it into a gonzo, hugely entertaining black comedy. Not just one of the director’s most pungently atmospheric films, but also one of his funniest.—WSThe ClassLaurent Cantet’s story of a year in the life of an inner city Parisian middle school wrings pathos out of a familiar kind of impotence in the modern education system. Watching well-meaning but jaded teacher François confront the contradictions and hypocrisy of a deeply fractured system—and his interactions with the kids stuck in the middle—is truly heartbreaking.—CBFantastic Mr. FoxFor his most recent film, Wes Anderson chose to forgo live-action in favour of animation. The stop-motion is jittery and the music is sparse, yet the movie never skips a beat. It feels entirely authentic and sure of itself with that characteristic Andersonian vibe present throughout. The lush, warm colours along with careful set and costume design are as pleasing to the eye as the characters’ voices are to the ear.—Tom CardosoIn the LoopThere is a certain poetry to the feature-length blue streak of Malcolm Tucker (Peter Capaldi) in this British comedy about the lead-up to a fictional war in the Middle East. The withering send-up of modern ego politics makes this a work of high modern satire. Introducing shibboleths like “fuckety bye,” “let them eat cock,” and “I will punch you into paralysis” into the canon of obscenity helps, too.—CBInglourious BasterdsThis revisionist WWII action-drama epic is packed full of film and music references, as is to be expected when dealing with Quentin Tarantino. Along with the excellence of its quintessential Ennio Morricone-laden soundtrack, Christoph Waltz gives one of the most stunning performances of the year as Nazi official Hans Landa.—TCTakenBad-ass doesn’t even begin to describe Liam Neeson in this crazy action romp through the streets of Paris. After 20 or so brief minutes of plot development, the film shifts into overdrive, with an insane body count matched only by the sheer balls of Neeson’s character—at one point, he even shoots a French cop’s wife. After a while, you can’t help but feel sorry for Neeson’s enemies in the film.—TCTysonHollywood survivor James Toback was the perfect director for a documentary about another survivor, his close friend Mike Tyson. With no pretense of objectivity, Toback’s film simply lets Tyson deliver his life story in a monologue that is engrossing, revealing, often intelligent, and sometimes absolutely maddening. Freed from years of hype, scorn, and caricature, Toback finally gives us a chance to see that Mike Tyson is a man, warts and all.—WSHonourable MentionsChris: Adventureland, Anvil! The Story of Anvil, Interior Design (Michel Gonry’s third of Tokyo!)
Tom: 35 Shots of Rum, Avatar, The Hurt Locker
Will: Bruno, Observe and Report, Where the Wild Things ArehBAylbN4
Oh Holy Father, where art thou?
The recent attack on the Pope during Christmas Eve Mass made me think about the relation we Catholics have with him. It’s extremely confusing to outsiders and, at times, it would be correct to say some people idolize him. To us, he is another father, one that we don’t always agree with but we trust to lead us through times good and bad.One of the most memorable events of my family’s Christmas vacation will be standing in horror 20 feet away from where the attack happened.After four hours of lines, security checks, and rain, we made it into the standing section as the doors were closing. As the curtain at the back of the church opened, a parade of cardinals, bishops, priests and other clergy marched out before Benedict XVI made his grand entrance.The crowd erupted. As whenever the Pope appears in public, a mass of outstretched arms holding cameras followed him. Every Catholic, no matter how lapsed, was filled with both a spirit of awe and a savage instinct to push everyone, young and old, out of the way. I caught a glimpse of the Pope seconds before he turned the corner and was attacked. We could only see the camera mob, but knew something had gone wrong when a terrifying collective scream rose and echoed through the ancient walls of St. Peter’s Basilica.For about 10 seconds everyone remained silent, glancing at each other, telepathically exchanging the same concern for our Holy Father’s old age. As the Pope got back on his feet, a man cried “Viva il Papa!” (“Long live the Pope!”). The church erupted in applause and cheering as the 81-year-old man made his stride up to the altar.Quite often I find myself at odds with the Vatican. There are aspects of Church dogma that I either disagree with or am baffled by. The Church has a history of abominably oppressive actions that are hard to swallow, though moves are being taken to heal and reconcile them. I also get upset with public relation nightmares, like when Benedict XVI spoke out against condoms on his flight to Africa last March with wording that practically asked the media to misquote him.And yet, I respect the Pope and his office. He keeps the billions of Catholics throughout the world united in a way that no other group is, especially in a world that increasingly oversimplifies religious thought and treats it with hostility. Catholics trust him to lead a tradition that has gone through trouble and change.At the end of the Mass, the Pope blessed a traditional creche (nativity display) then walked through the back curtain behind Swiss guards and men in suits. En route he decided, seemingly on a whim, to bless the foreheads of three small children in the crowd. For me, the gesture symbolized both the resonance of real face-to-face encounters as well as the Pope’ role as a father figure to billions.
UBC student union fails to impeach execs
Two student politicians at the University of British Columbia will keep their jobs after facing possible impeachment for filing a human rights complaint to the United Nations over unaffordable education. President Blake Frederick and VP external Tim Chu of the Alma Mater Society have instead had heavy restrictions placed on their powers.An hour before the meeting to impeach the execs, an 18-page legal opinion from AMS’s law firm, Davis LLP, informed the council that a recall or an impeachment motion would be illegal. The firm advised instead to censure, or formally reprimand, the two executives.Despite the lack of an impeachment motion, over 200 students attended the council meeting on Dec. 7. Council unanimously passed a motion to censor Frederick and Chu and then a subsequent motion requiring the execs to report their activities on an hourly basis. At the meeting, Frederick called the UN complaint a “media stunt that was meant to engage public discussion about tuition.”Frederick’s first hourly report has already stirred up some discussion, with activities like “Bubble Tea Break (2pm-2:30pm at the UBC Village)” and “Facebook (2:15pm-2:30pm).”The AMS has scheduled its annual general meeting two weeks earlier than usual, on Feb. 12, to further punish Frederick and Chu. The new executive is officially brought in at the AGM.According to the Facebook group “We oppose the AMS impeachment of Blake Frederick and Tim Chu,” Chu is quoted as saying that filing the UN complaint cost around $6,000. Frederick said it cost another $6,000 to get the legal opinion on the removal of directors.
U of T student lands Rhodes scholarship
Erin Fitzgerald has been awarded the prestigious Rhodes Scholarship, which will provide a stipend and tuition expenses at the University of Oxford for two years, with an option for a third year. Each year, 11 Rhodes Scholarships are earmarked for Canadians, with two going to Ontario residents. Fitzgerald will graduate in May 2010 with an Honours BA in international relations and political science.Established in 1903, the Rhodes Scholarship considers academic distinction, citizenship, and extracurricular activities. The award is named after Cecil Rhodes (1853-1902), the British businessman and politician who founded the diamond mining corporation DeBeers. Rhodes is best known for his ardent support for colonialism, accumulating his wealth to the detriment of oppressed peoples.Scholarships are nothing new to Fitzgerald. Thanks to a bevy of scholarships, including $25,000 from U of T, $16,000 from the province, and $20,000 from Coca-Cola, her father’s employer, she is debt-free.Fitzgerald has an excellent academic record, and graduated from high school with a 99.5 per cent average, the highest in Toronto. Nithum Thain, the other Rhodes Scholar from Ontario, has a 4.0 GPA. He is currently in his second year of his Doctor of Philosophy in mathematics at McGill University. He plans to do a Master’s in developmental economics at Oxford in September 2010.It should be noted the scholarship looks for more than grades. Such was the case with Kofi Hope, a U of T alumnus who became a Rhodes Scholar in 2007. “In my final year I got straight A’s for the first time in my life and was pretty much spending as much time on activism as school, if not more time on activism,” Hope said.Fitzgerald spent a summer working as an intern at the World Health Organization in Geneva. Another summer she was at the Center for Strategic and International Studies in Washington D.C., where she co-authored with Anthony Cordesman, a well-known security analyst, reports on Afghanistan, Iraq, and U.S. strategic planning.At U of T, Fitzgerald is the chair of the G8 Research Group, a network of students and faculty who monitor how well G8 and G5 members comply with commitments they make at G8 Summits. She attended the Toyako Hokkaido Summit in 2008 as a research analyst, and will lead a G8RG delegation to the Muskoka Summit this year.Fitzgerald is the fundraising director and former president of the Hart House Debating Club, editor-in-chief of The Attaché Journal of International Affairs, and an undergraduate representative on the University Affairs Board of U of T’s Governing Council.So how does she do it? “Organization is key. The skills that I learned from karate—discipline, focus—play a big role in my ability to maintain a balance between my GPA and extra-curricular activities,” said Fitzgerald, who has a black belt. “Because I have learned to focus on the task at hand, I am able to avoid procrastination and get to work quickly, which lets me take on and complete more things.”At Oxford, Fitzgerald will pursue a Master’s in Philosophy in International Relations with a focus on military and strategic studies. She plans to get a law degree afterward, at an Ivy League university.
Stem cells may save hearts
Recent research suggests that stem cell–derived cardiac cells may enhance the treatment of heart disease. Peter Zandstra, professor in the Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering at U of T and Canada Research Chair in stem cell bioengineering, collaborated with professor Milica Radisic and Gordon Keller’s research group at the University Health Network to develop engineered heart tissue and cardiac myocytes (commonly known as cardiac cells). These cells effectively mimic certain features of heart tissue.Zandstra and Radisic recreated the heart’s environment in the lab to better understand how individual cardiac myocytes integrate with each other. “[To do this] we created an artificial cardiac patch, into [which] we injected different test cell populations under different conditions. We found the progenitor cell integrates [most efficiently],” says Zandstra. The progenitor cell is derived from a stem cell. It is more developed than the stem cell it originated from, but not as mature as an adult cardiac myocyte.The progenitor cell proliferates during the adolescent phase, allowing it to easily integrate in the engineered heart tissue. Its stem cell counterpart is too dissimilar from the adult cardiac myocyte found in the heart tissue, thus it does not possess the ability to integrate successfully. Similarly, mature cardiac myocytes are too undifferentiated to proliferate.“[Although] these [adult] cells function very well in heart tissue, they die during a heart attack. When one transplants adult cells, they [lack] the developmental capacity to reconnect with the [other] adult cells,” explains Zandstra. This failure to reconnect occurs because adult cardiac cells are not accustomed to receiving signals from the heart tissue, and are therefore unable to locate where they are within the tissue itself.Additionally, the progenitor cell must follow the rhythms of the tissue in which it integrates, or rather it must be electro-mechanically equivalent to the host tissue. “If a cell creates its own rhythms, it might create a cardiac arrhythmia which is problematic to the heart,” says Zandstra. Cardiac arrhythmia can lead to cardiac arrest and sudden death. Moreover, the cell must be capable of generating the same contraction forces as the host tissue. If the injected progenitor cell lacks the mechanical strength of contraction, it may weaken the heart as a whole.Progenitor cells were injected into the engineered heart tissue fabricated from neonatal mouse or rat heart cells to test the integration. The engineered heart tissue acted as a scaffold onto which the injected cells attached. “Electrical [stimulation] of the scaffold caused the cells to realign and start to function as a [whole] piece of tissue,” explains Zandstra.“[Prior to this research] no one had used engineered heart tissue to screen cell transplantation of progenitor cells,” says Zandstra. “Most people tried to inject tissue right into the heart, but hadn’t been able to understand how cells integrate with each other.” Injecting cells directly into an animal heart is difficult since the environment cannot be controlled. Recreating the environment in a dish allows researchers to observe and analyze the integration of cardiac cells.While Zandstra acknowledges that the in vitro recreation of cell cultures in two dimensions was successful, he believes that the three-dimensional environment of the tissue they have created is more advantageous since it better mimics the heart’s environment.The study was funded by the Heart and Stroke Foundation and published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences in 2009. This research offers a way to screen various cell types that could be used for cardiac therapy. “We are hoping that the results we are generating in this model will accelerate the development of new therapies,” says Zandstra.
Top nine of ’09
Varsity Blues athletes, claiming individual and team honours, filled 2009 with outstanding accomplishments. Here are the top nine performances of 2009.
Women’s soccer team fifth at CIS tournamentFor the first time, the University of Toronto hosted the Canadian Interuniversity Sport women’s soccer tournament at Varsity Stadium. Fourth-year midfielder Erica Basso scored the game-winning goal as the University of Toronto Varsity Blues defeated the UPEI Panthers 2-0 in the consolation final. With the win, the Blues completed the tournament with a fifth place finish and a 2-1 record.
Football team wins the Argo CupThe Blues football team had a stellar performance as they beat the York Lions 45-27 in the 40th annual Red and Blue Bowl, claiming the Argo Cup for the second year in a row. Quarterback Jansen Shrubb and receiver Jonathan Wright connected on three touchdowns, leading the Blues to their first win of the season. The Blues tallied 431 yards of total offence and notably held the Lions to 38 yards receiving in the first half of the game.
Men’s soccer earn OUA silver and finish fourth at CIS ChampionshipsThe Blues men’s soccer team won the OUA silver medal after falling to the McMaster Marauders in a penalty shootout. It was a tough game, as both teams were fighting for the number-one spot in the OUA. The Blues earned a spot in the CIS Championship, fighting hard for an overall fourth-place finish in the tournament.
Women’s lacrosse team claims OUA bronzeThe Varsity Blues women’s lacrosse team won the OUA bronze medal after a 16-10 win over the Queen’s Golden Gaels. After losing to the Laurier Golden Hawks in the semi-finals, the team bounced back with an impressive performance against the Gaels to end their season with an outstanding 13-1 record.
Women’s golf team earns OUA goldIn an impressive performance, the women’s golf team captured their first OUA title. The Blues defeated defending OUA champion Western and tournament favourites the Queen’s Golden Gaels. Remarkably, until the Blues, no other team but the Mustangs had won the championship since its inception in 2005. The Blues pulled away with a combined two-day score of 494 points.
Fencing team sweeps OUA Championships, wins bronze at national tournamentIn February, the Varsity Blues men’s and women’s fencing team won gold at the OUA Championships. The women’s team finished first in all three individual and team events. Epée captain Hilary Peden won the gold medal, followed by teammate Joanna Ko with silver. Mandy Lau took the gold in the foil event, while foil captain Claire Midgley scored the silver. In the sabre event, Allison Doyle won the gold. The men earned medals in each individual and team event, with Hans Wolfgramm winning gold in the individual foil event. From Nov. 26 to 29, 10 members of the fencing team competed at the Senior National Fencing Championships at Carleton University. OUA all-star Kamil Karbonowski won the bronze medal in the men’s individual event, leading his teammates to the bronze medal in the team event.
CIS high jump champion Sarah Boyle represents Canada at Francophone GamesAfter earning the gold in the women’s high jump at the CIS Championships in March, Sarah Boyle represented Canada at the Francophone games from Sept. 27 to Oct. 6 in Beirut, Lebanon. Boyle placed sixth in the women’s high jump event at the Jeux de la Francophonie. She also received a bronze medal at the 2009 Canadian Track and Field Championships and world selection trials in June.
Colin Russell named the 2009 CIS male swimmer of the yearIn February, star swimmer Colin Russell set two new national records in the men’s 100m and 200m freestyle. After breaking the two records, and winning three gold, one silver, and three relay medals (two silver and one bronze), Russell was named the CIS male swimmer of the year. Russell also helped the Blues men’s swim team earn a bronze in the CIS Championships.
Cross-country runner Megan Brown wins CIS gold medal, finishes second at the 2009 Canadian Cross-Country Championships
Megan Brown claimed her second consecutive CIS gold medal (and her third in four years), leading the Blues cross-country team to a second-place finish at the CIS Championships. In addition, the fourth-year runner finished a 7km race in 23:28, placing her in second at the 2009 Canadian Cross-Country Championship in Guelph. This stellar performance makes her eligible to represent Canada at the IAAF World Cross-Country Championships this March in Bydgoszcz, Poland.
Dreaming of a gold Christmas
The 2009 Christmas wish list from the men’s Varsity Blues basketball team had only one item on it: a trip to the CIS National Championships. “I want a championship,” said guard/forward Pat Sewell. “There are no individual goals for me. I just want to win.”After taking some time off for the holidays, the 5-3 Blues get back to work this week rested and ready to start the second and more difficult portion of their schedule. “We’ve been a little injury plagued, so resting was key,” said point guard Nick Magalas. “During exams and the break you kind of take yourself away from [basketball] so that you can come back to it with a little more zest, a little more passion.”The Blues have it tough when they resume the season, where six of their first eight games are on the road. Their only home stand in that stretch comes against Ottawa and Carleton, who are both ahead of Toronto in the OUA East standings. “When you have games on the road you have to stick together as a team,” said forward Nick Snow. “You need to focus on the game plan, get good shots, rebound well, hit your foul shots, and take advantage of what the other team gives you. You get some hostile crowds, and it’s fun, but you’re 12 guys against a couple thousand in some places. So you have to stick together and keep the energy high on the road when you don’t have that crowd there to help you out.”After the road trip, the Blues close out the season with five of their last six games at home, and by then they expect to be in a very good playoff position. “Our league is tough top to bottom,” said assistant coach Mike DeGiorgio. “You get an easy game here and there with RMC, but everybody else is capable of winning in their gym. Realistically, we’re hoping to catch up to Carleton for one, and also overtake Ottawa in the standings and hopefully secure a bye in the first round of the playoffs.”The team understands the importance of this section of the schedule, especially in terms of how it will translate into their playoff success. “We’ve got to be more disciplined in the second half of the season,” said Sewell. “A lot of mistakes we’ve made in the first half shouldn’t be happening in the second half. We should be more cohesive and more aware of what’s going on, minimizing mistakes and pulling out wins.”“Our goal by the end is to be a top-three team in the country,” added shooting guard Rob Paris. “It’s a very difficult task, but we can realistically get 12 wins [during the next 14 games] and come out with 17 wins overall at the very least.”The team has marked Jan. 15 and 16 on their calendars—the home stand against Ottawa and Carleton. “You always look forward to the home games,” said coach DeGiorgio. “There’s going to be a big crowd in the gym, and everybody knows that weekend is going to be a big weekend for us, so I’m looking forward more to the home games just because of the atmosphere that our gym creates.” Forward Drazen Glisic agrees with his coach. “The home stand will be fun because of the crowd,” he said. “But they’re both big games for us, and it’s also great to go into their gyms and it’ll be even greater to get a couple of wins on their court.”The other 10 games, however, are not to be taken lightly. “We beat Ottawa in the preseason in overtime [on the road], which was a big game for us,” stated Snow. “We know we can beat Ottawa, and we can beat Carleton if we play well. But we also have those 10 other games; we lost to Lakehead and Waterloo and some people think we shouldn’t have lost those games. We looked at the tapes and we saw that we beat ourselves. So we not only have to play well against Ottawa and Carleton, we have to play well all 14 games we have remaining, plus the playoffs. There’s so much parity in the league right now that anybody can beat anybody.”“How we grow as a team over the 14 games is going to be a testament to how well we do in the playoffs,” added coach De Giorgio. “Teams are going to start to scout, especially the second time through, you’re going to have a good handle on what every team does, so being able to execute down the stretch of those games is really a barometer of where the team actually is compared to their win-loss record.”At the end of the season, Magalas sums up what will be on everyone’s minds come playoff time. “I want to win that game that has plagued us for the last four years, [that OUA quarterfinal game against Ottawa] to see who plays Carleton in the OUA Championships. That game has been my nemesis since I’ve been at U of T.”“If we take care of our mistakes,” continued Sewell, “there’s no reason why we shouldn’t come out on top.”As confident as the team is, they will need some help from the fans. “I think we have one of the best gyms in the conference,” said coach DeGiorgio. “We have good atmosphere, and if we reach out to the colleges and student groups to come out to the games and let them know what is happening in our gym, it would definitely give our guys a boost.”