At an emergency meeting on Dec. 3, the clubs committee of the U of T Students’ Union granted funding to the French Club (EFUT), the U of T Italian-Canadian Association, and the North American Model UN student group.EFUT, which in November had their budget request tabled, was given $8,000. The club had requested $17,020.64 in their October application. Last year, they received $10,000. Sitelle Cheskey, EFUT’s president, says the club will appeal the decision.According to Vita Carlino, UTSU’s clubs and events coordinator, EFUT will have to submit a written statement expressing their concerns, which will be addressed once the tabled funding requests are resolved. UTSU warns clubs that if they do submit a statement of appeal, there is the possibility that they will receive no funding at all.Clubs have expressed dissatisfaction over limited funding. WATCH, a student-run charity that serves children, asked for $500 to help cover costs for their annual holiday dinner at Hart House. UTSU gave them $400 and recommended that they search for a less expensive venue. “We are mostly unhappy with the reason they indicated for not giving us [the funding],” said Fei He, a WATCH member and former president. “What better way to inspire all these inner-city children to go to university or college than to give them a taste of the best at U of T—Hart House.”The budgeting calendar is a primary concern. Clubs submit budgets to UTSU in October and receive the verdict in November. Rejected clubs were told their budgets would not be reconsidered until January. UTSU awards funding on a 40-30-30 schedule. For clubs that are granted over $2,000, the first 40 per cent of their grant is given immediately, with two remaining instalments of 30 per cent forwarded once clubs submit receipts to UTSU. The schedule effectively gives clubs five months to spend what their applications have budgeted as a year’s worth of money and forces clubs to draw from reserves or pay out of pocket for events in the first semester.“I’m not an enthusiast [of the funding schedule],” said Mueen Hakak, UTSU’s professional faculties representative and former clubs committee member. “I’ve been a clubs member and I’ve seen that it causes a delay, as clubs find out how much they are going to get very late in the semester. By that time, half of their activities are already done.”Club leaders echoed the sentiment. “Our biggest problem now is that we’re having trouble reimbursing our executives for the expenses they’ve paid themselves,” Fei He said.“There needs to be a profound change in the clubs funding process, since we had to fund all of EFUT’s activities out-of-pocket up until now,” said Cheskey. “It is unacceptable for [the students running a club] to have to take such financial risks.”In an email to The Varsity, UTSU’s VP campus life Danielle Sandhu said she has not heard from any clubs that the budgeting calendar was flawed. “All feedback I have received thus far regarding funding allocations has been positive,” she wrote.UTSU informed Cheskey that the club’s application was incomplete, as they did not submit a membership list. EFUT maintains that they held back on the information out of consideration for student privacy. Alumni chair and former president Antonin Mongeau said that the clubs committee ignored an invitation to examine membership lists at EFUT’s office.“EFUT will not likely be able to host all the events we had hoped to,” Cheskey said. “We feel that a 20 per cent cut [in funding] from last year is not consistent with our efforts.” She said EFUT had around 1,300 students on their mailing list last year, and over 1,700 this year.Hakak said that complaints are of little significance when applications are incomplete. “We have to as clubs make sure that what we do is complete before we can make complaints or point fingers,” said Hakak. “If EFUT was the only club denied because they did not have membership lists, then it would be a problem. From what I can tell, the rules were applied across the board.” The African Students Association also had their funding delayed because of an incomplete membership list.With the $8,000, EFUT plans to continue with most of their regular programming, which includes a tutoring program, regular movie and pub nights, and conversation clubs for students seeking to polish their French language skills. Among the events that are likely to be cancelled are a large academic conference and a trip to New Orleans.
Clubs get funding at emergency UTSU meeting
Body Worlds and The Story of the Heart arrive at the Ontario Science Centre
Did you know that there is such a thing as dying from a broken heart? Termed broken heart syndrome, the condition involves a weakening of the heart muscle triggered by severe emotional stress, such as the death of a loved one. This is just one of many facts about the heart that can be learned at Gunther Von Hagens’ new exhibit, Body Worlds and The Story of the Heart, now open at the Ontario Science Centre.Four years after the Canadian premiere of Body Worlds II at the Science Centre, Dr. Von Hagens is back with a brand new chapter in his Body Worlds saga. The current exhibit presents an integrated view of the heart using anatomy, cardiology, psychology, and culture to explain how this four-chambered muscle regulates and sustains life.Through the life-like and dramatic poses of full-body specimens and the detailed presentation of organs and body parts, guests obtain in-depth insight into the structure and function of healthy and unhealthy bodies. These captivating displays use real human bodies that have been preserved through a technique called plastination.
The organs and whole-body plastinates in the exhibition came from people who generously donated their bodies to Von Hagens’ Institute for Plastination in Heidelberg, Germany, specifically to be used in Body Worlds exhibitions for educational purposes. Today, more than 10,000 donors have bequeathed their bodies for plastination, 68 of whom are Canadian.Plastination was developed by Von Hagens in 1977 to enhance the education of medical students. It is a technique that removes water and fat tissues from deceased specimens and replaces them with curable plastic polymers to halt decomposition. Today, it is used at more than 40 medical and dental schools throughout the world as a supplement to anatomical
dissection.There are four steps to the plastination process: fixation, dehydration, force impregnation in a vacuum, and hardening. The first step entails embalming a body in formaldehyde to halt decomposition. After the necessary dissections, the dehydration step involves placing the specimen in an acetone bath, then exposing it to freezing conditions. This allows the acetone to draw out and replace all the water from the body’s cells. In the third step, the specimen is then placed in a liquid polymer bath, such as silicone rubber, epoxy resin, or polyester. When placed in a vacuum, the acetone in the cells boils at a low temperature. As it evaporates and leaves the cells, it draws the liquid polymer in behind it, leaving a cell filled with liquid plastic. The plastic must then be cured in the last step using gas, heat, or ultraviolet light to give the specimen rigidity and permanence.Once plastinated, specimens can be manipulated and positioned. These preserved specimens retain their natural structure and are identical to their pre-preservation states, even down to the microscopic level. The new exhibition includes over 200 human specimens including whole-body plastinates, organs, and translucent body slices. Of particular interest are a full sized (15-foot) sliced giraffe (a personal favourite) and a full-body plastinate in a delicate yoga position.Visitors are provided with profound insight into the human body, health and disease, and the physical ramifications of unhealthy habits and lifestyle choices. The exhibit juxtaposed plastinates depicting healthy bodies against those that deteriorated due to common conditions such as arteriosclerosis, smoking, and obesity. It also provides fascinating displays featuring up-to-date research in cardiology, including preventive care and state of the art treatment options such as artificial hearts and angioplasty techniques.The exhibit also includes a powerful emotional element that explores the heart’s significance in art, history, and religion. A striking and memorable example is a full body plastinate named “star warrior,” posed in mid-prayer holding a perfectly preserved human heart up to the sky, a poignant image representing the historical and cultural significance of the heart.Body Worlds and the Story of the Heart is designed to appeal to an extremely diverse audience, from health nuts, to parents with small children wanting to learn more about the importance of healthy life choices, to university students of all disciplines. No previous medical knowledge is required and the exhibit acts as a fascinating aggregate for information and discovery into your own body. One U of T life science student remarked on her experience: “It’s like rereading all your notes on PSL302 [Human Physiology] again, but it’s fun and interesting because there’s no test!”It is a must-see for anyone with a passing interest in anatomy and the human body. The exhibit inspires a sense of awe at the intricacies of our physiology. The displays motivate visitors to learn more about the human body and empower them to make healthier life choices.Gunther von Hagens’ Body Worlds & The Story of the Heart runs until February 28, 2010 and offers a special discounted price for students (with ID). Photos are not allowed.
Migrant workers have right to unionize: protestors
Two activist groups are going to the Supreme Court over unionizing rights for migrant workers.Justicia for Migrant Workers and the Industrial Accident Victims Group of Ontario presented oral arguments on Dec. 17. The arguments were presented as a part of the ongoing case Fraser vs. Attorney General of Ontario to give Ontario’s 100,000 agricultural workers the right to bargain collectively.Ontario’s Agricultural Employees Protection Act gives agricultural workers who come to Canada yearly with temporary visas the right to form associations but not to bargain collectively. The Fraser case is a legal challenge to that exclusion.Justicia’s main organizers are Tzazna Miranda Leal, an undergrad at U of T, and Chris Ramsaroop, a former president of the Association of Part-Time Undergraduate Students at U of T.Supporters, including 15 U of T students and alumni, travelled to Ottawa to attend the trial. They also demonstrated at the house of Stephen Harper and held a vigil at the Chinese Railroad Monument.“We were interveners in the case, meaning we were a party to the proceedings. We brought forth arguments relating to the particular experiences of migrant workers,” Ramsaroop stated in an e-mail to The Varsity. Ramsaroop was present for the court proceedings.Intervention is a legal procedure that allows outside parties to join and contribute to ongoing litigation. Justicia was included in the intervention because of the organization’s affiliation with migrant workers.After being awarded intervener status, Justicia and IAVGO jointly raised nearly $5,000 to cover the cost of buses, food, and demonstration materials. Legal representation was pro bono.Justicia argued that uncertain employment compounded by the lack of immigration status denies migrant workers the ability to exercise their rights.Arguments that Justicia and IAVGO developed were delivered by Selwyn Pieters, who told the court that the current model of labor relations in Ontario is insufficient to protect workers and results in systematic discrimination.Ramsaroop said arguments also sought to capitalize on the history of discrimination in Canada. “We wanted to show how history has repeated itself through the exploitation faced by migrant workers,” he said.Full proceedings of the Fraser case are expected take between six months and a year.A public vigil will be held for four migrant construction workers on Thursday, Jan. 7 at 7 p.m, at 2757 Kipling Avenue. They died on Christmas Eve when the swing scaffolding they were working on broke in two pieces, plummeting them over 13 stories to the street below. With files from Naushad Ali Husein.
Crime and news in brief
Crime on campus
Campus police kept busy in December, investigating crimes from theft to arson.There were 40 counts of trespassing, 32 thefts, 19 emergency calls, and one report of elevator entrapment. Out of thefts reported, six laptops were stolen.There were several reports of mischief. On Dec. 14, campus police investigated damage inflicted on a door at the Graduate Students’ Union pub and damage to a vending machine.On Dec. 1, campus police responded to a complaint of a suspicious package at 222 College St., which turned out to be a charging battery pack. They also investigated a report of arson at the Koffler Student Centre.Campus police responded to two complaints of indecent acts, one at St. George and Hoskin, and the other at St. George and College.The St. Basil’s Church parking lot on Bay St. had the highest number of reported incidents, followed by Robarts and the Bahen Centre.—Nikki Rozario
College students fear strike
A strike has been a possibility ever since talks between Colleges Ontario and the Ontario Public Service Employees Union, which represents 90,000 teachers, broke down in December. The union has set a strike vote for Jan. 13.Mature students enrolled in Ontario’s Second Career program fear potential campus strikes across Ontario.The program offers training and financial support to laid-off workers, and has approved 21,000 people since 2008. Now many of these people are worried about their situation should the strike take place.“A lot of us, after getting laid off and going through all that uncertainty, looked to the education system as a place of safety,” said Don DeSchutter, 44, who is in his final year of a human resources program at Fanshawe College in London, Ont.“People who are getting ready to get into second careers may not be able to do that now, [and] their life is in the balance.”—Ryan TuzykSource: Canadian Press
Language changes how Canadians see university
A national poll of Canadians over whether a university degree is a minimum requirement for success shows a wide gap between French- and English-speakers.The survey of 1,500 Canadians found that fewer than 20 per cent of French speakers between the ages of 18 and 24 said a degree was required, whereas 40 per cent of the English group maintained it was. Notably, more than two-thirds of respondents whose first language is neither French nor English agreed that a degree is necessary for success.Michel Perron, a professor at the University of Quebec at Chicoutimi, pointed out that the results of the survey may be affected by the importance placed on technical degrees by many in the province. In a poll conducted this spring for the Ménard group, when college training was included as an option, nearly 90 per cent of respondents said post-secondary education was important.Jack Jedwab, executive director of the Montreal-based Association for Canadian Studies, worries that there will be a growing incongruity between the groups unless action is taken to change the attitude that education is insignificant to success.—Carolyn ArnettSource: Globe and Mail
Separation of church and philosophy
Plans at the University of Winnipeg to merge the philosophy, classics, and religious studies departments into a singular humanities department have been postponed. Dean of Arts David Fitzpatrick formally revealed the amalgamation plan early this November, arguing that amalgamating the departments would effectively save the school close to $30,000 in its Arts budget. He maintained that each program would still remain a separate unit within the merger to maintain its academic integrity. However, there was immediate backlash from the would-be affected communities, and the project has been moved back for at least another academic year. Nevertheless, students and faculty continue to express concern over the recent disintegration of the philosophy department in particular, and what the merger could mean for the department’s future at the university.—Gina ShinSource: Winnipeg Free Press
Science in brief
A recent study out of McMaster University has shown that the flowering plant Impatiens pallida plays well in the sandbox, at least with its siblings. The work showed that when surrounded by plants that it is related to, Impatiens will reduce the growth of its roots, thereby sharing food and water with relatives. The plants also grow longer, “branchier” leaves that prevent the shading of nearby siblings. When unrelated plants are grown together, Impatiens instead devote more energy for leaf growth in order to compete with nearby non-kin plants for access to sunlight and shade non-family individuals. The researchers observed Impatiens recognition of kin versus non-kin occurs only after growing the plant’s roots in a shared pot. This study builds upon a mounting body of evidence that plants, like animals, are capable of kin selection. This knowledge may be useful in boosting agriculture output where vast tracts of farmland are dedicated to genetically identical crops.Source: American Journal of Botany—Lia Cardarelli
Researchers find genes responsible for athletic ability
Much of how an athlete performs in competition is a result of mental and environmental factors. The effects of genetic factors are known, but can be more difficult to assess. A Russian study aimed at understanding the effect of genetics on performance by testing athletes for genetic markers known to correlate with endurance. Many of the genetic markers are involved in metabolic pathways. The test cohort was composed of athletes involved in endurance sports such as cycling, running, and rowing. The study found that athletes were more likely than a control group to carry nine or 10 of these genetic markers (out of 10 markers tested for). When elite athletes were compared to the control group, the enrichment of these markers was even more apparent. While each of the genetic factors has a small effect, the combination of many endurance markers may make the difference between mere mortals and the truly Herculean among us.Source: Human Genetics—LC
Studies find correlation between marijuana and alcohol abuse
Marijuana is the most commonly used illegal drug in North America. Its use has been linked not only to social malfunctions but also to health risks including an increased chance of developing mental illnesses. Recent studies have shown that marijuana usage and dependence is caused by a set of genes common to alcohol abuse. A study examining over 6,000 individuals aged 24 to 36 years of age looked at the amount of alcohol consumed by subjects compared with the frequency of marijuana use. Dependency levels were also measured by symptoms indicative of addiction. The results of this study show that genes influencing the use and misuse of marijuana also influence alcohol consumption and abuse. Genetic influences on drug use are not specific to a single drug, but rather cause a general tendency to engage drug use. Researchers hope to gain more insight on the environmental factors influencing the use of both substances to further advance this area of research.Source: Science Daily—Tahmina Nasserie
A tradeoff to the excitement of colonizing Mars
Astronauts embarking on space journeys now have an additional worry while in space. Research at the Nancy-University in France and the University of Luxembourg shows that space travelers’ immune systems progressively weaken during spaceflight. Moreover, bacteria replicate faster in micro- or zero-gravity environments, while latent viruses, responsible for diseases such as chicken pox and mononucleosis, are more likely to reawaken. Bacteria are also more virulent and antibodies are less effective in outer space. Data reviewing more than 150 studies from the Apollo era show that even short-term space journeys resulted in compromised immune systems. NASA scientists are still trying to identify the reasons behind the immune system deficiency syndromes astronauts experience. Unfortunately, their first-ever comprehensive study of the evolution of viruses and astronauts’ immune systems was lost in 2003, as the shuttle Columbia disintegrated while re-entering the Earth’s atmosphere. Louis Montaner, editor of the Journal of Leukocyte Biology, acknowledges that with current technological achievements, disease-free survival in space is unlikely and may pose a significant impediment in successfully colonizing Mars or even the Moon.Source: Popular Science—Albert-Razvan Gheorghita
Teaching our bodies to kill cancer and HIV
In a program funded by the National Institute of Health, researchers at Yale University published a breakthrough discovery that proposes a cure for two of the deadliest diseases of the 20th century. Researcher David Spiegel introduced synthetic molecules to healthy cells that were able to trigger the body’s immune response against prostate cancer cells and HIV-infected cells, while preventing healthy cells from becoming infected. The molecules attach themselves to antibodies already present in the bloodstream and to proteins located outside infected cells. Prostate cancer synthetic molecules allow for high cell selectivity, unlike radiation-induced chemotherapy. The treatment can be delivered simply in the form of a pill, and its side effects are predicted to be minimal since the molecules act to enhance the body’s natural immune response. In comparison to HIV antiviral drugs, the synthetic molecules targeting HIV-infected cells are less costly to produce and easier to administer. HIV affects 33 million people worldwide, while one in six American men will have prostate cancer, which is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths.Source: ScienceDaily—ARG
The men who moil for oil
When celebrated Cambridge astrophysicist Sir Martin Rees estimated humanity’s chances of surviving the century at “no more than 50/50,” Stephen Harper had not yet sabotaged the Copenhagen talks to protect the Alberta tar sands project from binding carbon reduction goals. Sir Rees has yet to update his estimation, but it cannot have improved. In the post-Copenhagen world it takes less than PhD qualifications to calculate the survival chances of the world’s most desperately poor at somewhere between “slim” and “nil.”After Copenhagen, it appears the rich nations, the primary creators of global warming, will resist emissions cutbacks to maintain their competitive advantage in the world economy. Meanwhile, droughts will bring cholera, and floods will bring malaria to the poorest peoples on earth who, incidentally, do the least emitting. The savage drought currently leaving a trail of crop failures, animal corpses, and human bodies in its wake as it ravages Kenya gloomily foreshadows the fate awaiting the pauperized masses of the African coast and flood-prone regions. As the drought wreaks grotesque devastation on subsistence farmers, pushing 1.3 million people into risk of starvation, the tar sands project contaminates over 3 million barrels of water a day as its carbon emissions climb steadily into the range of mid-sized industrial states. The anticipated decimation of fisheries as oceanic PH levels decline due to climate change could be catastrophic. This fate now seems ever more likely.The highly-trumpeted non-binding agreement thrown together at the eleventh hour of Copenhagen would only limit the world’s temperature increase to 2 degrees Celsius above preindustrial levels. Even if this purely voluntary target is met (by signatories who displayed their abundant good will all week by blaming each other and the developing world for climate change), the deal still dooms Tuvalu and at least three other island states to watery graves.That such people suffer the carbon profligacy of rich nations because major emitters refuse to rein-in industrial profiteering smacks of dystopian irony. It’s of little comfort that Stephen Harper told Bloomberg.com that this government will put economic recovery before efforts to protect the environment. Nor is it reassuring that the much-hyped Tar Sands Boom will be a lasting gravy train for the future economy. Leaving aside the immorality of prioritizing of the Canadian economic recovery above the survival of countless Africans, the idea that the Tar Sands will benefit the future Canadian economy holds water only if that economy is somehow independent of human survival past this century—a view not likely shared far outside of the Conservative Cabinet and the corporate oil lobby.While Harper’s myopic choosing of oil over the planet unacceptably menaces our grandchildren with disaster, others are experiencing this disaster at present. Right now, Kenyans are doubtlessly wondering what Tuvaluans, Maldivians, and millions of coast-dwellers will likely wonder in the near future: “Why are the profits of big Canadian oil corporations more important than the lives of our children?” Others, even more audacious, may ask: “Why do the Canadian people allow their government to kill us for money?”These are the questions we will have to answer in the future, unless we ask them now.IPec
Islamic Republic coming down in Iran
It was in July of last year when I wrote about the commencement of Iranian protests in the wake of an allegedly rigged presidential election. “This is the beginning of the end for the Islamic Republic,” I said.Only six months has passed since, and the crumbling of the regime is not hard to spot. As 2009 ended, masses of Iranians came to the streets in confrontational and violent clashes with regime forces. Hundreds of thousands took part in demonstrations in Tehran, Esfahan, Shiraz, and cities all over the country, demanding an end to the rule of Ayatollah Khamenei, their unelected yet all-powerful Supreme Leader.The most intense clashes thus far occured on December 27, the mourning day of Ashoora. The day commemorates the time when Imam Hossein, an old leader and symbol of Shiite Muslims, was killed in the seventh century by Yazid, the khalifa who opposed him. Shiites are known for their passionate mourning on they day of Ashoora every year.But this time, Ashoora was a day of the most massive protests ever in Iran. Choosing this day to hold demonstrations was a clever tactic on the part of the protestors, who used official government days to gather en masse in the streets and stage anti-government demonstrations.Slogans were sharper than ever, with “This is the month of blood, Khamenei will be overthrown,” added to the now usual “Death to Dictator” and “Death to Khamenei.” For the first time, people succeeded in occupying and controlling parts of Central Tehran for many hours, and also invaded and occupied a few military barracks.The day also saw unprecedented developments that reminded many people of the last days of the Shah’s regime in 1978-79. Just like then, some armed forces refused to shoot on people, disregarding the commands of their superiors. It is no longer a mystery that the days of the Islamic Regime are numbered. One way or another, it is doomed to fall due to the massive force of a people who have dared to come out and demand an end to it.Like a hurt animal, hopelessly fighting for its survival, the Islamic Regime is still planning on unleashing its monstrous oppressive power to stop the protests. Last week, a number of Iranian MPs who support the government introduced a bill to Parliament that approves the execution of “enemies” in less than five days, where it used to be 20. That’s in addition to killing dozens of protesters in the streets.The movement continues to grow as people get ready for the next day of big protests. February 11 is the anniversary of the 1979 Iranian Revolution itself. A general workers’ strike could ensure its victory. Meanwhile, solidarity events and commemorations are happening all over the world, including in Canada (and especially in Toronto) where there is a strong Iranian community.The Islamic Regime is not only hated inside Iran because of its oppressive nature, but also because it is the head of an ugly creature that has been sickening the world: Islamist Terrorism (or “political Islam,” or whatever term you might prefer). Rooting up this regime will set Iranian people free, making Iran a beacon of hope for everybody in the region.Arash Azizi is an Iranian U of T student involved in organizing protests.
Emergence, then withdrawal
In recent years, independent galleries have become an increasingly (although by no means overwhelmingly) common sight on the Toronto art scene. Still, when two young artists founded the Whippersnapper Gallery in 2005, it was a highly innovative project filling a significant void in Toronto’s artist community.As young art students at the time, Luke Correia-Damude and Patrick Struys understood the difficulties of breaking into the commercial gallery circuit. According to Correia-Damude, they saw many of their friends become discouraged by the highly selective nature of commercial venues. “We realized that there was a need for independent galleries for young artists,” he says.Supported by friends and art lovers, the duo were able to establish the Whippersnapper Gallery. Currently located at 587A College Street, it provides emerging artists with an affordable space to display their work. The non-profit organization is run entirely by volunteer artists, and the gallery’s rental fees cover only the operational costs of exhibits. As a stark contrast to commercial galleries, which profit from steep commissions, Whippersnapper does not charge any commission on work sold from its displays. The gallery has also striven to nurture emerging talents. It grants artists extensive control over the exhibition of their work, allowing those just entering the gallery circuit to gain experience in a professional setting.Given the gallery’s success, it comes as a surprise that the Whippersnapper staff intend to relocate to a smaller venue when the lease of the current location terminates in May. According to Correia-Damude, the move is part of a plan to restructure the gallery so that it can better meet the needs of young artists. “People are still emerging artists after the first exhibit,” he says, “[and we realized that] there wasn’t a lot of support for them.”In order to provide emerging artists with more substantial support, the Whippersnapper staff is working to obtain “artist-run-centre status” from the provincial government. If formally recognized as such, the gallery will receive grants enabling the Whippersnapper to pay artists for their work. Government subsidies will also allow the gallery staff to concentrate on curatorial and artistic programming rather than administrative issues. They plan to narrow the focus of their exhibits and work more intensely with artists through in-house curating—a program that they believe is better suited to a smaller venue.Whippersnapper’s relocation means that the gallery will no longer function as a rental space for the type of large-scale events that it has hosted in the past. Correia-Damude believes, however, that the gallery’s new program will prove to be of greater benefit to the artist community than the current one. “We’re not abandoning the community,” he says, “but we understand the need for subsidized programming […] we’re going from being more of a facility to being a critical support for artists.”Whippersnapper’s latest show, the Emergence Exhibition Series, illustrates the type of elevated programming the staff intends to implement in the future. Curated entirely by the Whippersnapper collective, the series showcases the work of seven Canadian artists, all under the age of 30. “The Emergence Exhibits are a perfect example of the direction we would be going in,” says Correia-Damude. “[Their] focus is smaller, more intense.”The second instalment of the series, scheduled to run today through Jan. 22, is thematically centred on the historical and contemporary implications of violence. It will display the work of two young artists, Amanda Nedham and Jannick Deslauriers. Nedham, an OCAD graduate whose work has been displayed in Toronto, New York, and Florence, will present the sculptural installation “Generals Always Die in Bed.” It features a custom-built torture device designed to hold an army general in place as he lies dying, forcing him to reflect on his career. Deslauriers, who teaches visual arts at Montreal’s Marie-Victorin College, will present the installation “Champs de Povot,” a large-scale war machine surrounded by a field of poppies.In addition to the Emergence exhibits, Whippersnapper will host a final group exhibition in February, for which submissions are being accepted until Jan. 25. The gallery will continue to be available for rent until its doors close in May and the staff begin to fully pursue their plans for Whippersnapper’s new direction.Series 2 of the Emergence Exhibition opens tonight from 7 to 11 p.m. Regular viewing hours are 1-6 p.m., Wednesday to Sunday. For more information, visit whippersnapper.ca.