The feminist touch

We’ve all been there: You’re sitting at your computer, bottle of lube beside you, pants hung up on the towel rack, hand poised at the go, when suddenly you click onto a pornographic website and realize, “Wait a minute, this pornography isn’t female friendly! Isn’t there some way that I could find feminist porn without having to put my pants back on?”

Unfortunately, you’re going to have to be clothed for this, but if you are looking for a more public way to express your desire for a feminist outlet for your masturbatory needs, then you should check out the 2010 Feminist Porn Awards, created by the Toronto sex store Good for Her.

Chanelle Gallant, manager of Good for Her, created the awards in 2006 as a response to the growing voice of female-created and -produced pornography, a section of the industry that some felt was more attuned to the sexual desires of the women watching.

“Previously women were always involved, but no one was recognizing them,” says Alison Lee, the current manager at Good for Her and organizer of the Feminist Porn Awards. With some of the more notable issues present in traditional porn, it was a challenge to find more female-friendly fare. As Lee explains, “Some of the things in the mainstream media made it hard to carry DVDs [in the store], such as the racism and the exploitation, and the less positive aspects [of the industry].”
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Nominated films need to meet at least one of the listed criteria: a women must be part of the production, writing, etc., of the film; real female pleasure is depicted; and, according to the website, “it expands the boundaries of sexual representation on film and challenges stereotypes that are often found in mainstream porn.”

Awards range from Hottest Straight Movie to The Golden Beaver Award for Canadian Content, along with the standard categories like Movie of the Year. Previous Movie of the Year winners include Champion by Shine Louise Huston (2009)—to quote from the movie description, “Does the combination of tough butches, ne’er do well bois and femmes in heat sound like a match made in heaven?” (Why, yes it does, thank you!) Winners get a large glass buttplug award, and everyone else gets to bask in a very public display of pornography. It’s win-win, really.

One of the inherent issues with labelling an event “feminist” is the automatic assumption among some that the awards are for women only. Not true, according to Lee: “We don’t have any rules that say that you can’t be a male director to enter movies. Male directors have won awards in the past, but not a lot of men enter, usually because they assume it’s only for women. We have a few male nominees this year, and we’ve nominated male performers in the past.” For those involved, the event is meant not to just highlight women’s achievements, but to focus on women’s pleasure as well.
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The debate over whether porn can be feminist or not is a touchy one—from the anti-porn views of Andrea Dworkin to the sex-positive writings of Susie Bright, there’s no real agreement in the current overarching feminist narrative on the potential for pornography to empower women. But when it comes to the FPAs and the works nominated there, the answer is a resounding yes, yes, yesssssssssss, oh GOD, yessssssssssssssss.

According to Lee, “I think that what we’re saying is that porn can be feminist, and that showing sexuality isn’t inherently sexist. There’s a lot of joyful opportunity to be had just by enjoying it. The turn-on factor is not sexist—what is, is the unfair labour practices and the way performers are treated, and how women are depicted as objects, as being stupid, or as being useless except for their sexual capacity.”

Guests this year include award-winning author, writer, and adult filmmaker Tristan Taormino, director Shine Louise Huston, burlesque performer CoCo La Crème, and adult performers Nica Noelle and April Flores. The awards themselves will be presented on April 9 at Berkeley Church (315 Queen St. E.). Tickets are $20 at the door. For more information, visit

Canadian Content: Something’s rotten in our home and native land

It’s important to be patient when it comes to politics. As Ontario Premier Dalton McGuinty recently pointed out, democracy is a muddy affair, but it eventually produces results. Still, looking back on the columns I’ve written this year, most of them end on a sour note, or more occasionally, with a tone of defiant (and usually misplaced) optimism. Though it’s fair to say I have a taste for all things political, I find almost all the news coming out of Ottawa these days unpalatable.

Parliament, that ancient institution, that powerful symbol of peace, order, and good government, is almost entirely dysfunctional. Maintaining optimism in the face of this simple, virtually incontestable fact has been a challenging exercise. Crosby’s goal helped for a couple of days, but just as getting drunk temporarily relieves the anguish of a break up, the Olympics provided a few weeks’ shelter from the juvenile rhetorical melee of Question Period. Ultimately, I found myself right back where I’d been in January (except I had a splitting headache). Reality has a nasty way of creeping back in.

It hasn’t been like this forever, though. Even during Paul Martin’s short-lived and tumultuous tenure, there were major developments on economic and social issues: the right of same-sex couples to marry was recognized under the law; Ottawa tranfered major investments in health care; and Canada removed itself from participation in the apocalyptic American “Star Wars” adventure.

I don’t wish to suggest that the Martin era was an idyllic liberal Camelot. Like its predecessor government, it was riddled with scandals and used legislative loopholes to stifle dissent, cancel opposition days, and avoid confidence votes (something few Liberals today will acknowledge, even as they moralize and weep for the sanctity of Parliament).

These trends continue under the current regime, albeit with a much more sinister undertone. With each passing session, Canada has spiralled further into an effective minority dictatorship. When the House becomes inconvenient, it can be disposed of on a prime ministerial whim. In the subsequent legislative purgatory, “President” Harper rules by decree.

If this seems like hyperbole, consider the amount of executive power the Conservative leader currently wields. He muzzles his cabinet. Even his most senior ministers must seek the approval of his office before they speak. Cancerous rogue MPs like Bill Casey (who rejected a budget because it shafted his constituents) are cut from the government’s flesh altogether. Serious decisions like shutting down Parliament or refusing executive orders from a majority of MPs fall to Harper alone.

If only it ended there. The concentration of executive power (and its rampant abuse) in the Prime Minister’s Office is only the tip of the iceberg. The small, regionally specific Reform Party base from which the Conservative Party was built needs the same constant reassurance demanded by a jealous lover. For example, when funding was cut for KAIROS (a widely respected faith-based ecumenical NGO), Development Minister Bev Oda announced it was because the organization “wasn’t meeting government priorities.” Weeks later, Immigration Minister Jason Kenney revised the pretext for the move at the Global Forum for Combating Anti-Semitism, saying, “We have defunded organizations…like KAIROS, who are taking a leadership role in the boycott [of Israel].”

There were accolades within the reactionary Conservative base. Ezra Levant wrote, “It is sometimes difficult to support the federal Conservatives, usually when they are not being very conservative. But stories like this one remind me why I like this government.” Minister Kenney later wrote in the Toronto Star that the cuts had nothing to do with the organization’s stance on Israel. With brazen insincerity, the Harper Conservatives arbitrarily cut funding for a major NGO and then lied about it, all in an effort to stroke the sensibilities of a narrow portion of their base.

But the Conservative strategy goes deeper than this. Fundamentally, it seeks to realign political discourse, shifting Canada along with it. One only has to watch a few minutes of Question Period to see how far the Conservatives have taken this strategy. Take the issue of Afghan detainees. Isn’t it perfectly reasonable to ask, given the testimony that’s been presented, about the nature of detainee transfers by our troops? Apparently not. If only the opposition cared as much for the welfare of our soldiers than for Taliban prisoners! Polls have revealed that many Canadians aren’t concerned about the abuse of Afghan prisoners. By sticking to their guns, the Conservatives have successfully re-shaped the debate into one about patriotism. Torture be damned!

What about the government’s “law and order” agenda, most of which has nothing to do with either? Crime rates have been dropping steadily for 10 years, and yet the legislation the Conservatives brag about the most concerns “getting tough on crime.” Forget that such an approach has led to crowded jails and soaring crime rates south of the border. Yet a new study shows that a majority of Canadians are, once again, in favour of the death penalty and support harsher punishments for convicts.

On each issue, the government crafts a simple, “common sense” position and then repeats it ad nauseam. Those who care about the abuse of Afghan detainees hate the troops. Those who care about judicial autonomy are “soft on pedophiles.” The list goes on. Prorogation during an inquiry of critical public importance is “recalibration” and shutting down Parliament to avoid a confidence vote is “patriotic.” Yet with each issue, the framework in which reasonable discussion can occur shrinks further. Meanwhile, the opposition parties shriek beneath the fray of Question Period, struggling to be heard.

Six student unions hold referenda to leave CFS

The Canadian Federation of Students could lose 30 per cent of student membership, with over 150,000 students in 13 student unions across the country fighting to hold defederation referendums.

The CFS has sanctioned referenda for two member unions: the Post-Graduate Student Society at McGill and the Alberta College of Art and Design Student Association. Four other student unions plan to hold referenda without CFS approval.

According to Adrian Kaats, a McGill student who recently resigned as CFS-Q chair, problems have surfaced with the CFS about referendum voting procedures.

“The CFS, likely after reading our referendum exit report which explained that it took three days of voting to reach quorum (five per cent), insists that we only have two days of voting,” Kaats wrote in an email to The Varsity. “Our Council and ROC (Referendum Oversight Committee) members will not accept this unilateral decision by CFS to hold a referendum that will almost certainly fail.”

Dave Molenhuis, treasurer for CFS national, told The Varsity he needed to speak with his superior before responding to queries about legal proceedings. As of press time, a CFS representative was not available to comment.

The CFS is applying its new bylaw changes passed in its November 2009 annual general meeting, which forbids more than two referenda from taking place in a three-month period.

“Since they also have six months when no referendums are allowed to take place, only 4 referendums can take place per year, if they are perfectly timed,” wrote Kaats.

McGill plans to hold the referendum from March 29 to April 1. The McGill student union had gone to court for a safeguard and interlocutory injunction, with only the latter granted. At a hearing in May, the union will ask that a judge enforce the results of their referendum.

The Alberta College of Art and Design Student Association will vote from March 30 to April 1.

Other student unions are preparing to take legal action to continue the defederation process.

The Central Student Association of Guelph went to court on March 23 for the second time and won each of its court injunctions. The union expects to hold a referendum in mid-April.

In the case of the Carleton University Students’ Association, CFS claims that a counter-petition, created by students to remove their names from the original petition, has made that petition void.

The Concordia Student Union and Concordia’s Graduate Student Association are also facing obstacles in their referendum efforts. CFS has issued CSU a notice of outstanding fees amounting to a million dollars, and told the GSA it owes $200,000. According to a CFS bylaw, a union can’t hold a referendum unless it has paid all membership fees.

CSU president Amine Dabchy disputes the alleged debt. The CSU has passed a motion to go ahead with the referendum from March 23 to March 25. In response, CFS sent the CSU chair a letter saying that the results of the planned referendum vote will not be accepted.

Likewise, the GSA plans to hold a referendum in the first week of April.

The University of Regina Students’ Union were denied referendum dates by the CFS, but will continue with its referendum on April 1.

Other schools seeking to hold referenda include the Society of Graduate Students at University of Western Ontario, Trent Central Student Association, Glendon College Student Union, Dawson Students Union, University of Victoria Student Society, Graduate Students’ Association at the University of Calgary.

With files from Abdi Aidid

Reviewing the reviews


“Inspiration aside, some of the performances were actually good.
Like, ‘Wow, I can’t believe this guy is performing this in the front room of a frat house’ good.”
Kelli Korducki, Candles are for Burning’s Sam Shepard Trio, June 8

“This is the Coens’ funniest movie to date (yes, even funnier than Lebowski), so rich and subtle in its observational humour and background gags that it recalls Jacques Tati.”
Will Sloan, A Serious Man, September 21

“This dialogue-driven short is brilliant in both concept and execution.”
Jessica Lee, David Eng’s The Audience at the Hart House Film Board’s Student Film Screening,
November 16

“[M]y biggest regret regarding The Bob is that by the time you
read this review, the show will have already closed.”

Andrew Rusk, Victoria College’s The Bob, November 23

“The voice of Amanda Indovina as the young Maria was often overpowered in Act I, but a simple microphone adjustment during intermission allowed for her to steal the show in Act II; her incredible vocal range and multi-dimensional personality was impossible to miss.”
Jessica Tomlinson, SMC’s West Side Story, November 30

“If there is one movie you watch this holiday season, let it be Avatar. And please: if you can, go see it in IMAX. I can’t think of a better way to spend $17.50.”
Tom Cardoso, Avatar,

December 18

“Some people write memoirs. Junusz Dukszta commissions portraits. Call me crazy, but I think his method results in a more compelling narrative.”

Leonicka Valcius, UTAC’s Portrait of a Patron, January 25

“The cast performed terrifically and could easily be watched over and over again—despite being students, they’re true professionals, and all likely to succeed
as dramatic artists.”—Christine Jeyarajah, UCDP’s Body and Soul, January 28

“Although it took them a few minutes to hit their stride, this choir really showcased what a cappella music is all about, from beautiful harmonies to remarkable timing and a pitch-perfect conductor.”

Riley Watson, Onoscatopoeia at Acappellooza, February 4

“Despite not having as large a budget as many of Toronto’s operatic productions, Candide’s atmosphere and palpable energy at the MacMillan Theatre was extremely satisfying.”
Elias Cristante, Faculty of Music’s Candide, February 10

“At the conclusion of the third hour of The Laramie Project, your heart is breaking, you’re trying to hide your tears from your seatmates as the light comes on, and the chorus of voices and tragedy continues to haunt you as you exit the theater.”
Emily Kellogg, VCDS’s The Laramie Project, February 12

“Music this smart has never sounded so sexy.”—Nick Mckinlay, Four Tet’s There Is Love In You, February 11

“The most talented guitarist I’ve seen live in a long time, Saulnier rounded out the night by busting a series of wicked solos that would have done any guitar god proud, be it Doug Martsch or Slash.”—Wyndham Bettencourt-McCarthy, PS I Love You at
Canadian Music Week, March 15


“The more you like Simply Saucer’s records, the more prudent it is to cherish the hard copy and never, ever see the band perform live.”
Alex Molotkow, Simply Saucer at NXNE, July 6

“With dialogue, acting, and even zombie carnage lame across the board, somebody needs to finally shoot this franchise in the head.”
Will Sloan, George A. Romero’s Survival of the Dead, September 21

“Monuments + Bits suffers from problems symptomatic of what makes the exhibit so unique; since it is the work of three different architects, each with their own discourse, it lacks a coherent message.”—Becky McCleery, Khoury Levit Fong at the Arthur Gallery, October 22

“The most embarrassing moment, however, had to be FW veteran Pat Mcdonagh’s gimicky cake-hats and her inconspicuous inspiration from Baskin-Robbins ice cream. Fashion is an artistic sell-out by nature, but this brought it to a new low.”

Cailin Smart, LG Fashion Week, October 26

“The play lacked strong directorial vision—the pacing was awkward, the acting uneven and the three-hours in the theatre felt more like three days.”—Joan Wamiti, VCDS’s Cat on a Hot Tin Roof, November 2

“The Ireland backdrop does provide a nice change of scenery and some surprisingly stunning shots of the countryside. However, the horribly foreseeable story and questionable dialogue leave much to be desired.”—Josh Staav, Leap Year, January 10

“Akin to Marlon Brando’s Stanley, Cusack so embodied Rob Gordon he is inextricable from the character. For any actor, playing him would have been a challenge. David Light, though, is way off the mark.”—Elizabeth Kagedan, Hart House Theatre’s High Fidelity, January 25

“Though I was often on the edge of my seat, and at some points jumping right out of it, the plot slowly became repetitive and ultimately predictable. The only unforeseen scenes were the ones that lead to confusion on my part, often due to poor delivery from the actors.”
Jessica Tomlinson, The Edge of Reason, February 1

“After this high, an all-time low: Give Us The Daggers was just awful. At this point in the evening, they must have assumed that everyone was too drunk or tired to care, because they mostly sleep-walked through their performance.”—Alex Ross, Give Us The Daggers at the Silver Dollar Room, February 25

“I struggled for something entertaining to look at and ended up settling on the disturbingly shiny bald head of a fellow audience member, whose intermittent seat-shifting forced the reflection of the light to shift from time to time.”—Elizabeth Haq, Hart House Theatre’s Robertson Davies: The Peeled I, March 8

“The six minutes of Sandwiches and Salad on a Sunday Afternoon (Sean Grounds), in which a dude devours a gratuitously gory sandwich, would be enjoyable if you were stoned while watching it. Grounds’ other film, the nine-minute Gotta Poo would only be watchable while stoned and drunk….”—Moe Abbas, U of T Film Fest, March 18

“Plastic Beach seems to offer what the title implies: transparent garbage.”—Ariel Lewis, Freshly Pressed, Gorillaz’ Plastic Beach, March 22

York investigates student elections

York University admin are investigating the recent student elections. University president Mamdouh Shoukri has formally requested that ombudsman John McCamus look into results from the York Federation of Students elections. In a March 19 statement, Shoukri said that admin will review possible infractions after receiving “a significant number of complaints” from students.

Shoukri’s statement comes after 16 of 21 candidates on the “New York” slate were disqualified for alleged misconduct, which according to the CRO’s report included distributing copies of the Excalibur student newspaper without prior permission. Since then, members of the slate have been quoted as saying the CRO’s action was unfairly harsh. The elections committee, acknowledging that disqualifications are to be a last-resort action, eventually overturned the decision.

“We are aware that unapproved campaign material is a violation of the elections procedure code,” New York presidential candidate Fraser Stevens said in a video posted on the Excalibur website. “However, a free newspaper is a free newspaper. Everyone has access.”

“I feel it’s a very telling sign,” Stevens told The Varsity. “If students and administration are questioning the integrity of this election then obviously an investigation is appropriate.”

Shoukri said in the statement, “Transparency, fairness and integrity in the election process, as well as the possibility of orderly and democratic change, must be ensured for the benefit of all of our students.”

The disqualifications fueled already lingering discussion about the details of CRO Casey Chu Cheong’s appointment, which many students said was ill-advised. Cheong, like UTSU CRO Dave Blocker, was selected in a closed interview session by the incumbents, who ended up winning a resounding victory. This is his second year as CRO. In the statement, Shoukri mentioned that the ombudsman will look into claims that the CRO was neither impartial nor independent.

Shoukri, who came under a lot of fire last year for not adequately responding to student demands during the strike, issued the statement a little over a week after disqualifications, The ombudsman is to submit his report no later than June 30.

With files from Shonith Rajendran

Campus Stage: Release and the Festival of Dance

Silhouettes dance show provides release from the ordinary

Release, the year-end performance by U of T’s Silhouettes Dance Company, opened at the Betty Oliphant Theatre on Thursday night. The show included various types of dance over two acts, from contemporary to tap to hip hop to jazz.

It was obvious right from the beginning that the dancers were having a great time. The Soweto Gospel Choir sang the opening number “Hlohonolofatsa,” which mixed African and modern dance to showcase the evening’s theme of “release.” A celebratory mood emerged through the dancers’ fast-paced movements that set the tone for the rest of the show, though their coordination did falter at times.

Other notable performances in the first act included “Delirious,” performed with risky yet upbeat moves to the 2 Many DJs song “Mix for Colette” and David Guetta’s eponymous track. The flawless choreography grabbed the audience’s attention, as the dancers’ stripped their costumes throughout the number. (After the dancers threw their vests into the audience, left onstage in their bras, we simultaneously cheered and wondered whether the dancers’ mothers were alright with this piece.) Other stand-outs were the very funny tap number “Manteca” performed by Claire Young and Lauren Bajin and “On to the Next One,” which featured great coordination to popular hip-hop basslines. The act closed with the jazzy “Fosse.”

Act two opened up with “Battlestar Sonatica,” a modern dance with a hint of Indian inspiration that had eight dancers revolving around the graceful Olga Kciuk. Midway through “Illumination,” lasers lit dancers’ wrists, and they performed in perfect time with the lights. “Red Football” was gut-wrenching and emotional, while “Personal Jesus” entered sexier, more rock-inspired territory. Choreographer Krystal Boyea’s work stood out on hip-hop number “Girls Will be Boyz.” The Soweto Gospel Choir returned along with the whole cast for finale “Thina Simnqobile.”

Although there did seem to be some opening night nerves and one minor technical error, Release proved to be a fun, liberating, well-performed show. Here’s to hoping that Silhouettes keeps up the great work next year!—Tanya Debi

U of T’s Festival of Dance provides one of the best glimpses of this university’s diversity

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Hart House Theatre closed its 90th anniversary season this past weekend with the 15th annual U of T Festival of Dance. Featuring everything from ballet to reggaeton, this two-night event brought together some of the university’s best dance companies to celebrate this medium in all its forms. Well-established groups like Vic Dance and the University of Toronto Dance Club performed alongside independent artists in a two-and-a-half hour show that provided for everyone.

Last Friday evening’s show began with a modern ballet/jazz piece performed by Vic Dance, who also provided various ensemble and solo pieces throughout the evening. They stood out for their solid technique as well as their ability to evoke deep emotion through movement. Another strong component of the program was ChitraLekha Odissi Dance Creations, who performed three classical Indian Odissi pieces. A quick change of pace came about with Freedance, whose act featured an a capella beat box performance accompanied by two hip-hop dancers. Finally, the cast of SMC Theatre’s production of West Side Story combined technique with comedy in their interpretations of “America” and the mambo/salsa “Dance at the Gym.”

While all the groups demonstrated great skill, a few acts went above and beyond the audience’s expectations. Some of these included Rince na Eire, whose Irish step dancing provoked plenty of cheers, and Fo’ Real Hip Hop, whose impeccable coordination and rhythm made us want to dance along. Mirage, a five-woman belly dance ensemble, amazed the audience with their grace and sensual style. And Skule Nite, the Faculty of Engineering’s sketch comedy troupe, made everyone laugh with their hilarious Backstreet Boys parody, “Skule Nite’s Back.”

The night also included some interesting surprises, including two fusion acts combining belly dance and Latin dance. While I was initially skeptical at seeing Celeste Alarcon and Danielle Lottridge dance tango in bellydance attire, their incredibly sensual act proved irresistible. Another surprise came with “Photograph,” a fusion piece performed by Ismailova Theatre of Dance and the RSA Dance Ensemble. What began as a poignant pas de deux to the “Vals de Amelie” (a dramatic piece that illustrated a woman facing her lover’s desertion) finished as an Eastern European folk dance. This unique transition provoked a mixed response from the audience, perhaps only because it was so unexpected, but the group’s talent could not be questioned.

One way to improve future festivals might be to include more information about each dance company in the program. Most of these groups are influenced by a specific cultural tradition, and it would be good to know more about the history and culture underlying their work. But in all, the evening proved a great closing for the 2009-2010 Hart House Theatre Season and a celebration of the immense talent which we have in the U of T community.—Jeannine M. Pitas

Particles of Potter

Over 30 Muggles gathered at the McLennan Physical Laboratories on Friday hoping to find out if it was possible to make an invisibility cloak, or if they could ever actually go through a wall to King’s Cross Platform 9¾. Grad students Michael Zedler and Yaser Khan spoke on “The Physics of Harry Potter” as part of the Magic Wand Ownership lectures, organized by the physics department.

Zedler first gave a short history of invisibility within mythology and literature. His examples included the myth of Perseus and the Song of the Nibelungs, which features heroes who use a cap of invisibility to aid them in their quests.

“The difference between Harry Potter and the other figures of mythology is that Harry Potter is purely good while the others used it solely for temptation,” Zedler said, drawing laughter from the audience.

He then moved the discussion onto the scientific aspect of invisibility. While it is not possible to achieve complete physical invisibility, it is possible to appear invisible on tracking devices like radar.

Zedler specializes in “metamaterials,” which are engineered to have properties not readily available in nature. Zedler demonstrated that such material would be able to absorb electromagnetic energy, thus enabling a kind of “cloaking technology.”
Khan’s presentation focused on bending light as a way of passing through objects. He spoke about “tunneling,” in which light passes through a barrier to reach the other side.

“This is analogous in some sense to Harry Potter walking through a wall,” said Khan. To demonstrate tunneling, Khan had each of the audience members take a plastic cup of water from the front of the room and press their fingers against it. Each person could see their fingerprint through the glass. But if they dipped fingers in the cup of water and then pressed it against the cup, the fingerprints would be scattered by water.

Khan said that while it was possible for particles at the atomic and subatomic level to pass through barriers such as brick and wood, audience members should refrain from trying to run through walls at home.

In the question period that followed, one audience member asked Zedler, “So, how much is it going to cost to build my starship?”

“I’m happy if it works for something the size of a banana,” Zedler replied, emphasizing the expense of producing of metamaterials and how difficult it would be to cloak something on the scale of a “starship.”

VUSAC throws out election results

Victoria College students are to cast votes for student council execs a second time, although post-campaigning in the first round of elections did not conclusively change the outcome. An unnamed candidate, who did not win, was found to have campaigned during the voting period by carrying around a laptop and having students cast votes online. Two students are criticizing that decision in a report, saying that the Victoria University Student Administrative Council ignored and wrongly interpreted its constitution, and that council members voted on issues that were a conflict of interest.

The elections for president of VUSAC saw current VP external Akash Goel edge out clubs commissioner Evan Wallis. Voting took place March 18 and 19.

Chief returning officer Catherine Brown presented evidence of vote tampering at a March 24 VUSAC meeting. Brown is the current VUSAC president. Goel and Wallis have no conclusive connection to the tampering.

Brown said that up to 40 votes may have been “strongly influenced,” although only 17 were conclusively linked to the candidate in question. The ballots were cast online and tampering was determined through investigating IP addresses.

“Even if you nullified those 17 votes, there still would have been a big enough margin,” Goel told Victoria College paper The Strand. Goel was ahead of Wallis by 28 votes.

Brown recommended that the council ratify the election results. Following a secret ballot, the motion failed to receive a simple majority. Council members who won the first round of elections were not allowed to cast votes for the ratification motion, though Wallis, the unsuccessful presidential candidate, was allowed to vote. “I think a lot of people are questioning why a recasting of ballots is being done. I think that’s because there were enough members on council who wanted to make sure that students felt that the process was as transparent as it could have been,” Brown told The Strand.

In the report “VUSAC: A Crisis of Legitimacy,” Dev Shanani and Nicholas Erwin-Longstaff said that VUSAC overstepped its constitutional authority in challenging election results. They wrote, “Given the expected thoroughness of this investigation, and the fact that the candidate involved In this ‘tampering’ lost, it is surprising to see the results on an unrelated position that won by a margin greater than 17 votes being recalled.”

Voting will take place March 31 and April 1, through the voting system.