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UTSG: Automated Violence: Who Will Guard the Guards?

We will discuss automated decision-making systems (ADMs) being deployed by police services, with a specific focus on the RCMP’s “Project Wide Awake.” The surveillance program, sans privacy impact assessment, has garnered little media attention despite the chilling precedent it sets regarding privacy rights in Canada. In June 2017, the RCMP acquired and launched a social media surveillance program specifically targeting Black Lives Matter activists in Vancouver, BC. Our discussion will highlight some of the key features of the project and unpack a series of questions, including: Was there an objective to collecting data on BLM activists? Was the data disclosed to any other databases and third-parties, such as the Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS) database? And has this data been used to train ADMs? We will highlight how mass surveillance programs can exacerbate discriminatory and violent policing behaviours when data collection mechanisms and ADMs go unvetted and unchecked.

Daniella Barreto
Amnesty International Canada
Digital Activism Coordinator

Daniella Barreto is a public health researcher and anti-racist queer activist. She holds an MSc. in population and public health and continues advocacy work with sex workers and people living with HIV. She is a co-founder of RUDE: The Podcast, a professional photographer and Nuance writing fellow. She is currently Digital Activism Coordinator at Amnesty International Canada.

Nicole Leaver
Artificial Intelligence Impact Alliance
Public Sector Technology Researcher

Nicole Leaver is a progressive policy researcher and graduate student at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University. Her current research focuses on automated decision-making systems and inequality in Canada. She is a public sector technology researcher at the Artificial Intelligence Impact Alliance and a co-founder of RUDE: The Podcast.

The Weeknd donates $50,000 to Ethiopian Studies initiative

Classes for the program to start in 2017

The Weeknd donates $50,000 to Ethiopian Studies initiative

Grammy-winning R&B artist Abel Tesfaye, known as The Weeknd, has made a large contribution to the University of Toronto to help create an Ethiopian Studies program.

Last year, this initiative began with a campaign started by Professor Michael Gervers, who teaches in the Department of Historical and Cultural Studies. Gervers pledged to donate $50,000 of his own money, if community donations could match that amount.

The Bikila Award organization is rooted in developing “academic, professional and business excellence and promote volunteerism among Ethiopian-Canadians.” Tesfaye accepted Bikila Award’s invitation to contribute to the program — in 2014, Tesfaye received Bikila Award’s Professional Excellence award.

Tesfaye tweeted the confirmation of his donation to the program: “sharing our brilliant and ancient history of Ethiopia. proud to support the studies in our homie town through @UofT and @bikilaaward.”

The donations were presented on August 6 at Varsity Stadium, during the Bikila Barefoot Challenge event, jointly run by U of T and Bikila Award. In total, the money that was raised came close to U of T’s goal of $200,000 for the program.

Ethiopian Studies will be offered in 2017 by the Department of Near Middle Eastern Studies; one class will focus on the liturgical language Ge’ez. The Department of Near Middle Eastern Studies is currently building a curriculum for the program.

Professor Tim Harrison, head at the Department of Near Middle Eastern Studies, told U of T News, “Ethiopian studies is a great way to enrich our curriculum in African studies because it is one of the great civilizational cultures of Africa and the world.”

Four days after his donation to U of T, Tesfaye also donated $250,000 to the Black Lives Matter movement.

Blackness under scrutiny

Amid disappointing portrayals of Black Lives Matter, the Canadian media must do more to advocate for racial justice

Blackness under scrutiny

Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. once warned of an unsuspecting threat to Black liberation called “the white moderate.” He defined white moderates as people who prefer the “absence of tension” over the “presence of justice” and say, “I agree with you in the goal you seek, but I cannot agree with your methods of direct action.” The white moderate “paternalistically believes that he can set the timeline for another man’s freedom.”

If Black Lives Matter (BLM) is today’s civil rights group, then Canadian media is the white moderate at best and an antagonist at worst. This has become strikingly evident, given the outpouring of disappointing coverage in response to BLM Toronto’s (BLMTO) recent sit-in at Toronto’s Pride Parade — coverage that makes a mockery of the BLM movement, while simultaneously refusing to acknowledge that anti-Black racism continues to exist both in Canada and the United States.

In the Toronto Star, for instance, an editorial claimed that, while BLMTO is usually righteous, their actions at the Toronto Pride Parade went too far and stepped on the toes of allies. The activist group, an ’honoured guest’ at the parade, apparently should have opted for friendliness over confrontation, given the fact that the LGBTQ+ community are considered their allies.

Such a naive comment is symptomatic of the moderate, who supposedly understands and sympathizes with the cause of the marginalized but cannot tolerate the rage and urgency that naturally underlies it. It also ignores the fact that LGBTQ+ people can be racist as well. When reflecting on the public’s response to their sit-in, Rodney Diverlus of BLMTO tweeted that the first group of people to chant “all lives matter” —  a phrase that trivializes racism and violence against the Black community  by insisting everyone be treated equally despite unequal levels of disadvantage —  were white queer people. There is clearly still more work to be done.

As John Ibbitson wrote in the The Globe and Mail, the face of the gay rights movement has always been that of a white, middle-class man. Sexuality aside, an otherwise privileged group like this faces much less resistance in having their rights acknowledged than Black people, much less the many Black women and trans people who populate BLMTO. This reality explains why Pride can be infuriating to people of colour; at the end of the day, it still appears to be a celebration of cisgendered white men, despite the fact that monumental moments in the fight for queer rights, such as the Stonewall riots, were both initiated by people of colour and trans people.

Ibbitson’s more conscientious analysis is in stark contrast to that of his colleague Margaret Wente, The Globe and Mail’s star columnist and plagiarist-in-chief. In typical Wente fashion, her piece was condescending, bereft of depth, and overall dismissive of views that challenge her own. She called BLMTO “bullies” backpacking on the racial tensions of America, as if Canadians were innocent of racial resentment. For Wente, BLMTO simply ought to have been happy they were present at Pride; she believed the group’s protest was little more than whining. She crudely labelled most of BLMTO’s demands as asking for money for their personal projects, ignoring the fact that they have consistently urged Pride to strive for greater visibility, the inclusion of South Asian and Indigenous peoples, and increased accessibility for people with disabilities.

Wente took particular offense to BLMTO’s demand for the elimination of police floats in future parades. Her view that police floats symbolize “solidarity and inclusion” ignores the fact that both Black and queer people, and especially trans people, are justifiably fearful of police, who have a history of subjecting these groups and other marginalized groups to scrutiny, harassment, and violence. With this context in mind, seeing the police occupy space on a float in a parade dedicated to the inclusion of LGBTQ+ people is a taunt — and a violent one at that — for many queer people of colour.

Perhaps the most insulting part of Wente’s column is that she claimed Toronto is so much better for Black and queer people than other places in the world, consequently insinuating that Black and queer people should be grateful to only have to experience the lesser of two evils.



Similar sentiments were penned in the National Post, when Robyn Urback — despite acknowledging race as a factor in the pushback against BLMTO — wrote that Pride was an example of the political left “eating itself,” because two groups concerned with progress clashed. Holding groups that claim to be progressive to account can only be a positive thing, and BLMTO was right to expect more of Pride.

One can argue that today’s Pride, embellished with corporate sponsors, pinkwashing, and shallow support, is now more a celebration of past achievements than an event seriously concerned with marching further towards equity. Certainly, considering the backlash to BLMTO, the parade is a far cry from its political roots, meant to commemorate the Stonewall riots, which were initiated in protest against police brutality and led by queer and trans people of colour.

The media’s less-than-savoury takes on BLMTO are particularly appalling considering the position from which BLMTO is speaking. Amid the frequent shooting of unarmed Black people in both the US and Canada, BLMTO’s demand to ban police floats from the parade is not surprising. It is unnerving, to say the least, to march alongside an institution that can destroy you with impunity. One need only to look at the dozens of instances of police brutality against Black people in the United States ­— Tamir Rice, Michael Brown, Alton Sterling, and Philando Castile are just four of the Black lives that have been taken by police. Closer to home, the violence persists: consider the shooting of Andrew Loku by Toronto police, and the recent death of Abdirahman Abdi, a mentally ill man that was beaten to death by the Ottawa Police.

It is not that BLMTO’s demands or their strategies cannot be criticized. Yet, such criticism must be directed in a constructive manner, in a manner that, at the very least, acknowledges anti-Black racism and does not obscure the truth.

[pullquote-default]All marginalized groups find themselves underrepresented in journalism, and that’s a moral and a business problem.[/pullquote-default]

Fortunately, not all media perspectives on BLMTO have been so narrow-minded. While it isn’t necessary to share the identity of those one writes about, Desmond Cole, a Black writer, provided much needed context and clarity in his Toronto Star column amid a series of tone-deaf hot takes elsewhere in Canadian media. He notes how the media-manufactured Black vs. queer dichotomy erases the intersectional issues that queer Black people face — issues that arise as by-products of two overlapping marginalized identities, each with their unique lived experiences of oppression. Furthermore, Cole discusses how queer people of colour are alienated at Pride and in LGBTQ communities as a whole. Though it was not his responsibility to do so, Cole did well in explaining why BLMTO’s actions were justified, and this was a welcome contrast to many of the more dubious perspectives provided by his colleagues.

The reaction to BLMTO’s actions at Pride are symbolic of a bigger issue in Canadian media: an alarming lack of diversity. All marginalized groups find themselves underrepresented in journalism, and that’s a moral and a business problem. Identity cannot replace journalistic ability, but it can add valuable nuance and context when covering queer and racialized communities. Journalism where people are able to tell their own stories — if they choose, not because they are tokenized and pigeonholed to do so — can only be seen as a positive.

This is not to mention the fact that the media, by means of reaching a large audience, can set the stage and the standard for what kind of content constitutes legitimate, appropriate journalism. When BLM is caricaturized, but their notable achievements are not given air time, the seedy priorities of the media shine through — they paint racial justice activists as people not worth listening to, while obscuring discussions of their actual work.

Even beyond this, there are undoubtedly more overt and crass instances of racist content being published by the media. The Varsity is far from innocent of this — in 2007, for example, a blackface cartoon was published in our paper, something that we have yet to formally issue an apology for; we aim to officially amend this disgrace in the coming weeks.

Canadian media should commit to increasing diversity in newsrooms, which would increasesthe quality of journalism. Without Desmond Cole, there would only be one Black columnist in the mainstream media: Royson James of the Toronto Star. The Varsity now has a diverse masthead, but we do not entertain the notion that the mere presence of diversity will be enough to combat racism, both in terms of our workplace environment and the content that we publish going forward.

In order to work to combat racism in the media, a conversation needs to be had about the way race and racial issues are portrayed to the public, as well as the responsibility that media outlets have to tell a conscious story, not just one that makes headlines.

Black Lives Matter TO, this is your space

Removing police floats from the parade is crucial to creating an inclusive Pride

Black Lives Matter TO, this is your space

“Everyone in this space, sit down,” said Alexandria Williams, the co-founder of Black Lives Matter Toronto. “This is your space.”

This year’s Toronto Pride parade was halted by a sit-in protest organized by Black Lives Matter TO. Citing Pride Toronto’s erasure of Black infrastructure, the group made the following demands: full funding for community stages — including the reinstatement of the South Asian Stage — continued space and logistical support for Black Queer Youth, and prioritizing the hiring of Black trans women and Indigenous peoples at Pride Toronto.

Of these demands, the most controversial was the call for the removal of all police floats from the parade. Sparking various reactions from members of the LGBTQ+ community and police officers themselves, many claim that such a demand represents the exclusion of police officers from Pride, and that the protest as a whole was disrespectful to the LGBTQ+ community.

Despite these criticisms, Pride should be an open space for everyone to express their personal identities. Black Lives Matter deserves a space in Pride and should be prioritized over police officers.

The Toronto Star recently published an open letter from Chuck Krangle, an openly gay police officer, expressing his feelings of exclusion. In his letter, Krangle wrote about dealing with the fear of persecution, coming-out, and attending the Pride parade for the first time in 2016 with the support of his co-workers. He outlined the experiences of LGBTQ+ police officers, and their struggle to gain a workplace free of discrimination and bias.

“Members of police services, and their employers […] have just as much right to participate as any other group,” wrote Krangle. “Police Officers are significantly represented in the LGBTQ community and it would be unacceptable to alienate and discriminate against them and those who support them.”

What Krangle fails to recognize in his letter is that his occupation is a choice. He can still attend Pride without his badge and uniform. Blackness, on the other hand, is not a choice and cannot be shed in the same manner as a uniform.

Pride itself originated as a riot led by trans women of colour in response to the police raid of the Stonewall Inn. At the time, it was suspected that the New York Police Department was specifically targeting gay clubs. Because Pride originated as a movement of resistance against oppressive police force, it is antithetical for police to have floats in the parade, as Pride Toronto should respect both the history of Pride and the individuals who made Pride possible.

Despite the representation of Black and queer-identifying police officers within the force, as well as those who do not perpetuate violence against minorities, the very presence of police continues to incite fear in racialized minorities. It is crucial, therefore, that we recognize the institution of the police force as a symbol of oppression; members of racialized minorities continue to be murdered and harassed at the hands of police. For example, shortly after the Black Lives Matter protest in Toronto, Alton Sterling and Philando Castile were both killed by police officers in the United States.

[pullquote-default]Because Pride originated as a movement of resistance against oppressive police force, it is antithetical for police to have floats in the parade, as Pride Toronto should respect both the history of Pride and the individuals who made Pride possible.[/pullquote-default]

It is not the case that police officers should be excluded from Pride entirely. If police officers are to participate in Pride in any capacity, they should fulfill the role of promoting public safety — something that many marginalized communities have been deprived of.

Instead of marching in the parade, the police should take actions such as protecting attendees from hate crimes, preventing hate groups from entering the vicinity of Pride events, and monitoring public transit routes leading to and from the parade to ensure the safety of individuals travelling outside the boundaries of Yonge Street. Police participation in Pride should prioritize the protection of queer people — especially those of colour — instead of taking up their space.

The reception of Black Lives Matter at Pride was far from welcoming. “Don’t boo,” Alexandria Williams said in response to spectators of the sit-in. “[This is] the only time I have ever heard this from a community who should understand what it feels like to be oppressed.”

[pullquote-features]Pride belongs to Black Lives Matter more than it does to the region’s police officers.[/pullquote-features]

Members of the LGBTQ+ community opposed to Black Lives Matter’s actions should seek to understand the position of the black community, especially since both have faced similar systemic oppression at the hands of police. They should also recognize that Black Lives Matter is an intrinsic part of Pride. A common misconception — one that Williams challenges when she tells the protestors that Pride is their space — is that Black Lives Matter and the LGBTQ+ community are two completely separate entities. This assumption oversimplifies and ignores the numerous intersections of class, race, sexual orientation, and gender identity that make up the LGBTQ+ community — all of which should be recognized by Pride Toronto.

Pride belongs to Black Lives Matter more than it does to the region’s police officers. We must not condemn the actions of Black Lives Matter, but instead we must condemn the violent actions perpetrated by the police against people of colour. It is the systemic violence against black people that forces Black Lives Matter to protest, halt the parade, and make demands that would lead to inclusion and safer spaces for numerous marginalized communities. For these reasons, the removal of police floats is crucial to creating an inclusive Pride.

Avneet Sharma is a second-year student at Trinity College studying English and Book and Media Studies.