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Under invasion! Watch out for the Japanese knotweed plant

Aggressive species can penetrate concrete and starve local plant species of resources

Under invasion! Watch out for the Japanese knotweed plant

UTSG is under invasion by an unusual suspect — a thoroughly aggressive plant.

The culprit is Japanese knotweed, also known as Reynoutria japonica, which is a flowering bamboo-like species that has spread across Ontario and the rest of Canada.

Its population threatens infrastructure and native plant life, as the plant can penetrate concrete and rapidly overtake other plants in the race for nutrients and sunlight.

Knotweed, a plant native to East Asia, is thought to have been introduced to the rest of Canada through Nova Scotia in the 1880s. By 1901, it was grown in Niagara, Ontario for ornamental purposes. Its reach extends widely — an online map lists 63 sightings in Toronto alone.

Its large leaves can block sunlight from plants that grow closer to the ground, starving them of an essential resource for survival. Layers of decomposing stems and leaves shed by the plant can obstruct growth of native species. The space it takes up can reduce wildlife habitats too.

Knotweed also poses a threat to infrastructure because its roots can penetrate concrete. In one case documented in England, the plant grew through a wall and into a couple’s home — slashing the property’s retail value by over $400,000.

Now, it has invaded UTSG as well.

The Varsity confirmed two sightings of knotweed on campus. At the time of its survey in July, a very large plant was photographed overtaking sections of a garden attached to a student residence at St. Michael’s College, and a smaller plant was photographed growing on Sussex Avenue behind Robarts Library.

Two other clumps of knotweed were documented as dotting the western perimeter of UTSG on either side of Spadina Avenue. One was photographed at 698 Spadina Avenue, which is the site for a planned student residence building finalized earlier this year.

Controlling the spread of knotweed can be very difficult. The plants primarily grow offshoots through an underground plant stem, or ‘rhizome,’ which can reach a length of up to 18 metres.

The rhizome can be found as deep as two metres underground — meaning that overturning the entire top layer of soil is the best way to prevent the plants from spreading.

St. Michael’s may be home to the largest knotweed plant on campus

The knotweed patch at St. Michael’s College was photographed in the alley between McCorkell House and Sullivan House at 2 Elmsley Place and 96 St. Joseph Street, and Maritain House and Gilson House at 6 and 8 Elmsley Place. All are student residences. It was also visible from the quad behind Teefy Hall.

Knotweed plants have a distinctive appearance. Their hollow stems resemble bamboo once they mature, reaching up to three metres in height.

They have broad leaves shaped like a heart with a flattened base, which grow off the stem in a zig-zag pattern. The node where the leaf meets a stem is reddish-purple.

The plants blossom in late summer or early autumn, growing tufts of small white flowers.

At St. Michael’s College, the largest plant was photographed at over two metres tall and spreads out over about five metres, and pressed onto the side of a building.

Knotweed was observed growing on both sides of the paved alley, clearly demonstrating how its roots can push through and around concrete obstacles.

Three other locations nearby

The other Japanese knotweed plant on UTSG was photographed growing at the privately-owned house at 16 Sussex Avenue and near other homes. This is close to the Robarts Library and the Sussex Clubhouse, which houses many student organizations such as The Varsity and the Sexual Education Centre.

Another privately-owned property at 15 Glen Morris Street was photographed with knotweed plants growing in its backyard. The plants were spotted sandwiched between Graduate House, a residence building for graduate students, and the Early Learning Centre, which provides services for children of U of T students, staff, and faculty.

The final location was photographed just off-campus at 698 Spadina Avenue, beside the now-closed Ten Editions bookstore. It will be the site of a new student residence.

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How The Varsity identified the plants as knotweed

To initially identify the plants as knotweed, The Varsity followed identification guidelines prepared by advocacy groups. The visual identifiers — of having heart-shaped leaves, a hollow stem, and reddish-purple nodes were previously referred to in the article.

Tyler Jollimore, a Master’s student at Dalhousie University’s Department of Plant, Food, and Environmental Sciences, also confirmed that the sighted plants are knotweed in written correspondence with The Varsity.

He concluded the plants’ identity by examining photographs of the plants taken at the four sites listed in the article, which are included in the photo gallery above.

He added that well-informed observers can reliably identify the plant, even without his expertise as a Japanese knotweed researcher.

“So long as individuals have done their research, identification of Japanese knotweed is possible by anybody,” he wrote. “[The] appearance of Japanese knotweed makes it quite easy to identify as it tends to stand significantly taller than other herbaceous plants.”

The difficult task of eradicating knotweed

Knotweed spreads through stem cuttings and can quickly grow to colonize a new area, especially in a moist environment.

Once entrenched, the plant is very difficult to remove. Weather is no impediment, as it can endure harsh conditions and even survive floods.

The plant is especially effective at reproduction when growing alongside rivers. Its roots can break off and travel downstream, enabling it to start new growth in a different location. This is one of the ways it can spread quickly in a city near bodies of water.

Controlling knotweed populations with herbicides can take three to five years.

Physical removal alone is an ineffective strategy

One of the more common ways to eradicate invasive plant species is to cut the plant to reduce its height and diameter.

However, this physical method is not lethal to knotweed, as it can grow back again the following year. It can also make the problem worse. “Cutting could increase the chance of knotweed spreading,” noted Jollimore.

“People (more specifically children) may pick it up and play with [the plant remains], resulting in it being moved to another area,” he wrote to The Varsity.

Ecologists are currently studying effective means of knotweed control. Jollimore noted that according to the findings of a recent study he was involved in, “injections of glyphosate — a [herbicide] — can provide significant reduction in knotweed stem density in the year following the treatment.”

In this approach, every stem of the plant needs to be injected for the treatment to work. This can be labour-intensive, especially if an area contains a high density of knotweed.

“Using cutting and then spraying a herbicide to [prevent] regrowth one month later,” wrote Jollimore, could effectively reduce knotweed populations. Any removed portions of the plant must be disposed of to reduce the risk of spread via the cuttings.

Glyphosate is controversial as a likely human carcinogen. Ontario law has prohibited the use of glyphosate for plant eradication conducted for aesthetic purposes since 2009.

But the Ontario Invasive Plant Council, an advocacy group, wrote that the ban does not apply to glyphosate usage for knotweed removal. The plant’s eradication is motivated by the need to prevent damage to infrastructure and biodiversity, wrote the Council, which qualifies the plant as an exception to the ban.

As “glyphosate-based herbicides are significantly better than all other herbicide groups currently used for knotweed control,” according to Swansea University scientists, the herbicide’s application may still be the best approach for knotweed removal.

Invasive plants at U of T “physically removed” if discovered

Every treatment method against knotweed will require time and careful planning. Most treatments will damage the stems after the first year of treatment.

To prevent the spread of knotweed in the first place requires vigilance by local residents and plant owners.

“Be careful [when] accepting fill soil,” wrote Jollimore, adding that people should “use a keen eye when purchasing plants, as occasionally knotweed may be labeled as something else such as bamboo or Chinese rhubarb.”

Knotweed growth is hardly restrained by “unorganized, poorly thought out management strategies,” he continued. “You want to work smart, then hard — not the other way around.”

Mark Simpson, University of Toronto Director of Building Services, Grounds and Trades responded to The Varsity’s inquiry about sightings of Japanese knotweed on campus.

“The grounds department does, from time to time, find invasive plant species such as Japanese knotweed on University of Toronto property,” he wrote. “Such plant species are physically removed whenever they appear.”

A U of T spokesperson added that the knotweed sighting at St. Michael’s College was not on U of T property. The removal of knotweed at this location on campus is therefore not the responsibility of the grounds department, as the property of St. Michael’s College, which is a federated college, is not managed by U of T.

“The University of St. Michael’s College respects the environment, and follows the University of Toronto’s policy regarding invasive plant species,” wrote Michael Chow, Director of Facilities at St. Michael’s College, in a statement to The Varsity. “Our 11-acre campus is home to over 150 species of flowers, trees and other foliage, which our grounds team tends year-round. We’re aware of the plant in question and took appropriate action in late July.”

It’s important to report any sightings of the Japanese knotweed online, as earlier recognition of this invasive plant can help suppress its further growth.

Correction (August 13, 12:02 pm): A previous version of this article implied that U of T is responsible for removing knotweed at St. Michael’s College. A U of T spokesperson has written that the university is not responsible for this removal, as the property of St. Michael’s College is not under U of T’s management. The Varsity regrets this error.

Editor’s Note (August 15, 12:23 am): Additional photographs have been added to the article to provide visual documentation for all four knotweed sightings described in the article. The Varsity has also included further comments from Jollimore, which confirm that the photographs contain knotweed.

Editor’s Note (August 18, 9:47 pm): A statement from a St. Michael’s College representative has been added, who wrote that” appropriate action” was taken to address the two-metre tall plant sighted near 2 Elmsley Place.

Improving biodiversity consciousness through the media

Media, science, and readers have a responsibility to recognize the threat of invasive species

Improving biodiversity consciousness through the media

In light of the abundance of scientific evidence claiming that invasive species can have a detrimental effect on both biodiversity and human health, there still exist groups of people, even within academia, who believe that invasive species are not a concern.

With a leap of faith, U of T master’s student Darwin Sodhi suggested that the media can help scientists improve communication of their research and ideas.

As fake scientific news gains traction, true scientific facts become more misconstrued. In addition, Sodhi notes the challenges faced in determining whether scientific funding should prioritize health care or ecology, and how, in some cases, that may lead to fewer resources being available for biodiversity research.

At face value, this prioritization appears sensible because discoveries related to health would directly affect human beings. However, this overlooks the impact of invasive species on biodiversity and its immense effects on the human population.

According to the International Union for Conservation of Nature, between five and 20 per cent of all non-native species become problematic, or invasive.

A paper from last year noted that invasive species significantly affect and threaten the productivity of ecosystems through the alteration of biodiversity. This includes our food systems that rely on pollination.

Because invasive species can threaten resources such as food, water, fuel, and traditional medicines for millions of people, it may be high time scientists find more simplistic methods of articulating the essence and impact of invasive species research — and why people should care about it.

Sodhi believes that when reporting science stories, the media could improve on asking the right questions and validating sources. He also acknowledges that some science has become too complex that scientists find it difficult to provide simplistic answers to general audiences.

The current generation may not have to deal with the negative impact of biodiversity loss from invasive species and climate change, but future generations will be burdened with the consequences of our negligence.

Sodhi, however, is holding onto positivity: he believes that society has it in them to acquire a sense of biodiversity consciousness.

“People do care about biodiversity and show genuine interest,” said Sodhi. “[My friends and I] go hiking in the summer and [when I name species,] they are like, ‘Oh my gosh this is cool.’ And [they all] can walk around Toronto and point out the invasive species I work on.”