Opinion: The consequences of vaping

The increasingly-popular habit is linked to dangerous health complications

Opinion: The consequences of vaping

The repercussions of vaping can no longer be understated. As of this week, there have been a total of 21 confirmed vaping-related deaths in the United States alone, as well as 1,000 vaping-related lung injuries recorded thus far. Despite recent revelations pertaining to the risks of vaping, the popularity of e-cigarettes and other similar products has continued to rise. In recent years, vaping has become increasingly popular, particularly among young adults.

Undergrads at risk?

According to a recent survey conducted by Health Canada, almost one in four students from grades 7–12 have admitted to vaping at least once. Additionally, researchers at the University of Waterloo found that from 2017–2018, there was a 74 per cent increase in vaping among 16–19 year olds. 

Worryingly, a report released by the Centres for Disease Control and Protection (CDC) found that 80 per cent of patients admitted due to vaping-related illnesses are under the age of 35. The CDC, which analyzed 373 cases linked to vaping, found that 16 per cent of patients were under the age of 18, while two thirds of patients were between the ages of 18 and 24. 

The symptoms

Those affected were reported as being weak and short of breath, with many patients requiring additional assistance breathing. These individuals received supplemental oxygen, and, in more serious cases, were placed on ventilators. As of now, it remains to be seen whether there will be any serious or long-lasting effects.

Despite the recent influx of patients experiencing vaping-related health complications, surprisingly little is known about the long-term health effects of sustained vaping. In fact, no specific components of vaping, such as the ingredients or the devices, have been definitively linked to these recent health developments.

Due to the prevalence of THC usage among patients, researchers are actively studying the possible connections between the ingredient and illness. However, there is no evidence as of yet confirming THC’s role in these cases. With little else to go on, many health experts are advising the public against the use of e-cigarettes or other related goods, and furthermore to abstain from vaping altogether. 

The effect on athletics

Nicotine use among athletes is estimated to be between 25–50 per cent. Young athletes are being heavily affected by this newfound epidemic, making it harder for them to breathe, and decreasing their motivation to practice and play. Many have observed a link between vaping and respiratory illnesses. The effects that vaping has on athletic performance are also a common concern that users bring up when discussing their symptoms.

Another major concern that some athletes who vape highlighted is fear of being kicked off their team, or being demoted in some way if they are caught. There is little support in terms of cessation programs, and young people are often faced with punitive measures if they are caught. This makes it difficult to talk about the issue, and for athletes to get any help they may need. Among college students, vaping is also linked to depression, which would explain the decreased motivation that many athletes experience.

U of T fails to respond

Currently, U of T has combined any vaping-related policies with those already in place for traditional smoking. An example of this came  up in January, when the university banned smoking and vaping on campus. Although smoke-free workplace policies are proven to reduce tobacco consumption by up to 3.8 per cent, no such studies have been conducted in relation to vaping.

Officially, U of T has a total of three options to provide assistance for students who vape, options that are also intended for traditional smokers. These include meeting with a health care professional, accessing free nicotine replacement therapy, or being referred to Smokers Helpline.

U of T needs to do more. These services fail to recognize the disconnect between traditional smokers and contemporary vapers, and the plurality of differences between the two groups. Simply hoping that vapers will respond to services intended for traditional smokers is naïve, and quite frankly, unacceptable.

Moving forward, the university must take steps to further educate students on the risks of vaping, while additionally providing sufficient tailored resources for current vapers looking to quit. U of T needs to take preventative action now, lest the consequences be dire for its students.

Let’s get baked: from gluten to glucose and everything in between

The top 15 Toronto bakeries to get your daily carb intake

Let’s get baked: from gluten to glucose and everything in between

From delicious French breads to buttery croissants, soft decadent cookies, and tart fruit  pies, there is something for everyone when it comes to baked goods.

Bakeries are perhaps the true backbone of the Toronto dessert scene because of their sheer diversity and quantity. For those who prefer savoury treats, there are plenty of options here for you too.

Toronto is packed full of specialty dessert shops, from cookie shops and cupcake boutiques to Japanese cheesecake cafés — as good as the likes of Craig’s Cookies, Prairie Girl, and Uncle Tetsu are, specialty stores like this are left off this bakery list.

However, this list includes places that are bakeries in the traditional sense; places where you walk in and are immediately surrounded by tonnes of delicious baked treats arranged tantalisingly in front of you: tarts, pies, breads, cookies, croissants — you name it!

Here is a list of the top 15 bakeries, mostly in the downtown area and a couple just outside Toronto proper — yes, this is a condensed list. They are worth the trek, especially before it starts to snow.

Le Gourmand Café, Spadina Avenue and Queen Street West

Honestly, they must put something extra in their chocolate chip cookies, because wow.

Bakerbots Baking, Bloorcourt Village

Go on the weekend. You’ll find a much greater selection, including fancy tarts! It has the same owners as Bang Bang Ice Cream and Bakery, so you know you’re in for delicious baked goods and tasty ice cream if you’re in the mood.

Blackbird Baking Co., Kensington Market

Bread, bread, and more delicious bread, with a side of flaky croissants and seasonal tarts. Try their chocolate cork.

Butter Baker, Bay Steet and Dundas Street West

Cookies, cakes, and pastries galore! If you are an ice cream fan, they also have delicious soft serve.

Mabel’s Bakery, Multiple locations, Queen  Street West

Mabel’s is on here because whenever I am going on a dessert crawl of almost any sort, Mabel’s is always featured, from pies to cupcakes to cookies.

Nadège Patisserie, Multiple locations, Queen Street West

Who doesn’t love a good French pastry? Sometimes you just need a delicious macaron.

The Tempered Room, Parkdale

Very cute, and has croissants. They are so buttery and delicious. Any croissant with almonds or chocolate is to die for.

Forno Cultura, King Street West

Italian party galore! Sweet and savoury pastries in an aesthetically pleasing and bustling bakery.

Sanremo Bakery, Etobicoke

An Italian bakery that does it all — for those in the west end of town, you have to try it. Doughnuts, traditional italian desserts, cakes: if you can name it, they’ve got it.

Bake Shoppe, Ossington Avenue and College Street

Hip and  sleek with Drake cookies — literally, cookies with celebrities like Drake and Snoop Dogg. Also, ruffle marshmallow squares? Yes, please!

Rosselle Desserts, Corktown and Queen West

Canelés, canelés, canelés is all I have to say. But their other goods are also amazing.

Mashion Bakery, Spadina Avenue and Baldwin Street

One-dollar pork buns and rolls? We’ll take 10.

Bobette and Belle, multiple locations

A bakery for any special occasion. They have absolutely everything, and you can even stop by the store for a snack.

Lamanna’s Bakery, Scarborough

For those willing to make a trek or those at UTSC, check out this bakery. It will not disappoint; from pizza to cannolis, it has it all.

Almond Butterfly Harbord  Street and Spadina Avenue

Gluten-free everything! It is delicious, even for those without a gluten intolerance.

Fifth time’s the charm

Even at a university as academically rigorous as U of T, it’s still okay to take your time

Fifth time’s the charm

When I failed my driving test for the third time, I came home anxiously expecting a harsh lecture from my mother. I hadn’t completed this milestone in the expected timeframe like all the other kids my age, and so I braced myself for, at the very least, a disappointed look or sigh.

Instead she smiled and told me that I could just try again, and that there was no need to rush through. So instead of scrambling to pass before I was ready, I was encouraged by my mom to enjoy the process of learning to drive at my own pace. There was no point in simply matching other kids who earned their G2s on their first attempt with only 12 lessons under their belt.

I am currently preparing to graduate in November, having finished a degree that spanned five-and-a-quarter years of full-time and part-time course loads and a summer abroad. Upon reflection, I’m incredibly grateful that I took my time in university.

Like most university students, the way I initially approached school was anything but taking my time. All I was focused on was getting my degree in four years like everyone else, going on to do a Master’s degree in some field I’d eventually become passionate about, and get a good job somewhere… anywhere. I saw university as just a stepping stone to the rest of my life, which inevitably resulted in extremely busy course loads.

It was only during the middle of my third year — during a family crisis coupled with already poor mental health — that I realized how much I dreaded going to class, hated writing, and had stopped enjoying learning. I constantly thought about dropping out of university. I was lucky to have fantastic extracurriculars that kept me engaged at U of T, but I came to resent academia.

I started handing in assignments late, made excuses for missed lectures, and glossed over readings, barely absorbing any of the material. I sought help, but couldn’t muster up the energy to follow through with advice and accommodations. In fourth-year, I dropped to a part-time course load and felt like a failure for not graduating with the class of 2018.

Gradually, I moved past that shame and slowly found myself learning to enjoy school again. I asked questions in class, challenged peers in tutorials, and critically engaged with my readings and professors. Writing returned to me. After years of making excuses and telling myself I didn’t have enough time to go abroad, I finally finished my degree in Berlin, Germany, this summer.

This isn’t to say that finishing in four years is unrealistic. Nor is it to warn incoming first years that they’ll come to dislike school by following a planned four-year map. Rather, I’m telling you to not be afraid of slowing down if you need to.

I won’t deny that there’s a stigma attached to taking extra years to finish. Even shifting your course load to part-time simply for the sake of your own well-being can feel like a defeat.

But here’s a secret: there is nothing wrong with taking your time and enjoying university at your own pace.

University isn’t simply a stepping stone to your life. It’s a milestone, and milestones pass by in a blur no matter how long you take.

Ride it out. Make memories with people that matter. You’ve got your whole life waiting for you, so enjoy these fleeting university years.

I ended up getting my driver’s license on my fourth try, and the road ahead has never looked so bright.

The environmental impact of diets

The intersection of the climate crisis and your eating habits

The environmental impact of diets

Whether due to a facetious New Year’s resolution, a new documentary that spooked you off meat, or a genuine concern for your health, many of us have tried a new diet. It’s normal to experiment with what we consume on a daily basis. However, in the midst of all these trends, the environmental impact of our choices is hardly discussed. Whether you’re a strict steak-lover or a die-hard kale enthusiast, for those who have the means, it’s time to consider the impact your food has before it hits the table.

The keto diet

The keto diet is among one of the most popular ‘trendy diets’ today. In essence, the keto diet is made up of 75 per cent fat, 20 per cent protein, and five per cent carbohydrates.

Since it involves a high level of protein proportionally, many followers choose to consume meat products as their method of choice. However, meat production can have a massive carbon footprint.

For example, the production of livestock such as cows, chickens, and pigs accounts for 70 per cent of all agricultural land usage, and creates 18 per cent of the greenhouse gases released into our atmosphere. Moreover, 43 kilograms of greenhouse gas emissions are released for every one kilogram of beef produced. The keto diet is not doing any favours in correlation to environmental impacts.

Vegan and vegetarian diets

According to a 2018 Gallop poll, five per cent of Americans identify as vegetarian. Contrary to the common perception that cutting meat out of your diet correlates to a positive impact on the environment, a strict vegetarian or vegan diet may also have its own shortcomings, though it can still be a much better alternative to an omnivorous diet.

For example, vegetarians in the US commonly replace the meat in their diets with dairy products. Dairy products, an adjacent production to livestock, have a massive carbon footprint, since dairy cows release copious amounts of methane into the atmosphere, as well as other greenhouse gases, according to the World Wildlife Fund.

Dairy production also uses high amounts of water in order to nourish cows, and process manure. Moreover, manure runoff can pollute water systems, which can lead to serious health problems for consumers.

Vegans, however, do not consume dairy; in fact, they avoid animal products altogether. In theory, this should remove any negative environmental impact. However, according to the US Library of Medicine, pesticides used in conventional agriculture, such as fruit and vegetable crops, leak into surface level water where it can also pollute soil, poison wildlife, and harm other nearby plant-life.

It’s absolutely admirable to take on a new diet in order to improve yourself —personal growth is important. However, the next time you follow the next trendy diet, consider how much our Earth loses, too. There is no one diet that can save the planet, but individual consumer choices do add up.

This story is part of Covering Climate Now, a global collaboration of more than 300 news outlets to strengthen coverage of the climate story.

F the freshman 15

How to stay fit as a frosh

F the freshman 15

The turmoil of university life can really restrict the amount of time we have to move our bodies! Even for people who have always been enthusiastic about sports and fitness, it can be all too easy to relegate exercise to the bottom of our priority lists, especially when our piles of schoolwork often take precedence. Despite our heavy workloads, it’s valuable to dedicate time to fun and enjoyable exercise. Exercise shouldn’t be a chore; once you find activities you’re really interested in, exercise can energize, inspire, and help you focus on your day-to-day tasks. Here are some ideas for where to start: 

Join a drop-in activity

U of T offers many drop-in, instructor-led classes, from intense, sweat-inducing Boot Camp Fun, to invigorating Zumba. My personal favourite is doing a lunchtime yoga class between lectures. Drop-in activities are free for students — well, they are included in our incidental fees. They’re offered at the Athletic and Goldring Centres, as well as at Hart House. You can find the class schedules on their respective websites.

Check out a recreational club at U of T 

U of T hosts a variety of recreational clubs, including groups that explore the outdoors, go scuba diving, practice martial arts, and do hip-hop. Recreational clubs are not only a fun way to exercise, but also to join a community of new, like-minded people. 

Sign up for an intramural sports team 

Soccer, basketball, volleyball, ultimate frisbee, and flag football are just some of the many intramural sports offered at U of T. Intramural teams compete against other colleges and faculties within the university. Signing up for an intramural means finding a team and committing to playing games throughout the semester. This is a great option for those who have a competitive streak!

Find an exercise friend

Finding a friend to exercise with can be a great way to stay fit. Personally, having exercise buddies makes me feel supported, especially when my motivation is running low. Walk and talk, go rock climbing together, go for a refreshing swim, or reserve a badminton, squash, tennis, or table tennis court.

Consider registering for MoveU.HappyU

Physical activity can boost your mood and help reduce negative feelings. So, if you’re struggling with your mental health and want to improve your level of physical activity, I highly recommend the MoveU.HappyU program. Participants develop skills to stick to an exercise program and improve physical and emotional well-being through goal-setting, planning, and self-monitoring. 

It can be difficult to achieve a balance between personal life and school while in university. It can also take a while to figure out what kind of physical activity suits you best at this point in your life. The real secret to staying fit as a frosh is as cliché as it sounds: keep exploring and don’t stop trying new things until you find something you enjoy.

U of T launches Centre for Vaccine Preventable Diseases

“Enough is enough, we need to act to stop the spread of vaccine-preventable diseases,” says Centre Director

U of T launches Centre for Vaccine Preventable Diseases

U of T has launched the Centre for Vaccine Preventable Diseases at the Dalla Lana School of Public Health to address vaccine hesitancy. According to the World Health Organization, vaccine hesitancy is one of the top 10 threats facing public health in 2019, and has led to outbreaks of diseases that were previously eliminated, such as measles.

The Director of the centre, Dr. Natasha Crowcroft wrote, “The Centre will be (as per our vision) catalyzing cutting-edge research and education that maximizes the health benefits of immunization for everyone.”

According to Crowcroft in an interview with U of T News, “Unlike other provinces, Ontario has had no centre of excellence to work in this space. We are filling this gap with some of the best minds in the country.”

Crowcroft also highlighted the need for resources to attract and retain the researchers working on vaccine prevention. She mentioned that “there are great people working in Canada, but Ontario has lagged behind in not having a resource like this Centre before. And we always need new people to bring new energy and new ideas.”

To help reach its goal, Crowcroft hopes for U of T’s new centre to be an “internationally-recognized centre of excellence in vaccine preventable disease and immunization research and education.” She also lays out goals for cross-disciplinary work and increasing access to education on vaccine preventable diseases and immunization.

In an email to The Varsity, Crowcroft wrote, “A strong unified and harmonious voice speaking up for vaccines and more broadly for science is really important. Institutions and students from across Canada need to be on the same side. The battle against vaccine skeptics is never going to end.”

“One has to have a larger risk appetite”: Industry leaders discuss tech innovation at ONRamp event

Talk centres on entrepreneurship in finance, health, cannabis technology

“One has to have a larger risk appetite”: Industry leaders discuss tech innovation at ONRamp event

A panel of industry leaders convened at ONRamp, a U of T-led accelerator, on May 30 to discuss the barriers and opportunities that entrepreneurs face in the highly regulated industries of health, finance, and cannabis technologies.

Greg Pantelic, founder of AHLOT, a cannabis curation company; John Soloninka, founder of health tech company Accelerant Health Innovations; and Teri Kirk, founder of investor-entrepreneur matching program Fundingportal, described their experiences in their respective fields and how they have navigated government regulations.

The event was organized by the Smith School of Business at Queen’s University in association with ONRamp. This was not the first time the two organizations had collaborated — Queen’s partnered with ONRamp in February to expand its entrepreneurs’ networking opportunities.

Breaking into the industry and changing with trends

Pantelic’s AHLOT is a cannabis circulation company that “created the world’s first multi-licensed producers’ sample pack and storage accessory product,” despite not being licensed vendors.

“Our vision was creating experience before and after consuming cannabis,” Pantelic said, citing the overwhelming choices of recreational cannabis available to consumers.

After seeing new sign-ups and subscriptions grow at 40 per cent week-over-week in 2017, Pantelic decided to run AHLOT on a full-time basis. The increasingly growing demand for recreational cannabis following the enactment of the federal Cannabis Act, coupled with the market inefficiency of cannabis sampling, led him to create the Cannabis Collection, a series of one-gram samples from different premium licensed producers.

According to Kirk, “one has to have a larger risk appetite and more capacity for innovation [when pursuing entrepreneurship] in heavily regulated space.” Kirk used Fundingportal as an example explaining the importance of measuring cost and benefit. For example, when matching entrepreneurs with investors, geographical costs and benefits differ between Canada and the US, so proximity is a useful measure for deciding which markets to become involved in.

Regulations and innovations

According to Pantelic, the highly regulated nature of the cannabis industry prompted AHLOT to work with licensed producers rather than wait to obtain its own production license. As its Cannabis Collection collects sample cannabis from different licensed partners, every regulation policy regarding the product is dealt with directly by AHLOTS’ partners.

Kirk highlighted the importance of understanding regulations before entering the marketplace, highlighting how her experience of being a lawyer helped her in this regard. She also pointed out that entering a heavily regulated industry like finance technology requires innovators to embrace larger risks than in traditional industries, especially since latent regulations create more opportunities for failure.

Soloninka seconded this perspective. He mentioned that a strong understanding of regulations would provide a competitive advantage for innovators.

“Fitting into regulation is really strategic for starting your own company,” he said. Apart from that, entrepreneurs should remember that regulatory approvals are mostly regional, which is critical when deciding where to start a business.

To solve this regional regulation issue, Soloninka provided two suggestions: first, working with a consulting company that specializes in global regulatory systems; and second, conducting research on the internet.

Data accessibility

In the cannabis industry, data can be described as necessary but nascent. AHLOT is collecting its data by launching a cannabis circulation campaign, to hire people to provide feedback on recreational cannabis quality.

Kirk added that data allows entrepreneurs to understand the world around them despite it being “massively and heavily regulated.” As such, it may be important for entrepreneurs to take the costs of accessing data into account when making market-entering choices.

Labour groups rebuke U of T’s “inaction” on asbestos

Comments come as U of T report finds university meeting provincial standards

Labour groups rebuke U of T’s “inaction” on asbestos

In response to an independent U of T report that found that the university’s asbestos management practices meet legislated provincial requirements, and are even “more restrictive in some places,” labour organizations are criticizing the university over its perceived “inaction and inadequate response.”

The report and the university administration’s response were made public on March 26, two years after asbestos-containing dust forced the closure of sections of the Medical Sciences Building.

The report is a product of an independent panel whose membership was finalized by U of T in January 2018. Submitted to the school in February, the report includes data from over 4,000 air samples taken from university buildings.

The samples found that 95 per cent of indoor air samples from the Medical Sciences Building are indistinguishable from outside air and have asbestos levels below existing standards.

However, the University of Toronto Faculty Association (UTFA), which represents U of T faculty, librarians, and research associates, has strongly criticized the university’s asbestos management and the report’s limited scope.

On April 18, the UTFA, the Canadian Union of Public Employees (CUPE) 3902, and the United Steelworkers (USW) 1998 held a press conference to voice concerns about the report and the university’s handling of asbestos.

CUPE 3902 represents contract academic workers at U of T, including teaching assistants and exam invigilators. USW 1998 represents U of T’s clerical and professional employees.

Setting standards

Asbestos is a silicate mineral that was commonly used in construction for insulation and fireproofing before 1990. It was later banned, with some exemptions, in Canada in 2018.

When asbestos fibres are released into the air, such as during maintenance or construction, they pose a serious health risk if inhaled.

Across Canada, the occupational exposure limit (OEL) — which is the standard acceptable exposure for construction workers — is 0.1 fibres per cubic centimetre (f/cc) for asbestos.

The generally accepted exposure standard for the general public is half of the OEL — U of T has set its campuses’ action limit to this 0.05 f/cc standard.

The report was unable to find a legally enforceable maximum or best practice standard for public exposure to asbestos, meaning that its findings are tied to existing best practices.

Vice-President Operations and Real Estate Partnerships Scott Mabury stood by the university’s use of a 0.05 f/cc action limit, adding that if it finds a standard that is “grounded in something that everybody can agree on… or is based on some physical reality, then [the university] will consider adopting that level.”

Although not legally enforceable, the Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Climate Change has set a desirable concentration of 0.04 f/cc.

Mabury, formerly the Chair of the Department of Chemistry, said that as an analytical chemist, it is “very difficult to tell the difference” between 0.04 and 0.05 f/cc.

U of T’s standards have been a point of contention. The report recommended that the university ensures that asbestos exposure is “as low as reasonably achievable,” with 0.02–0.04 f/cc as suggested reasonable guidelines. It added that 0.01 f/cc should be an aspirational limit.

Mabury, however, said that the university has yet to find a basis upon which to lower acceptable asbestos exposure levels.

Terezia Zoric, the Chair of the UTFA’s Grievance Committee, wrote to The Varsity that U of T must act on the report’s recommendations.

“Despite the Administration’s own Panel’s finding that it would be best practice for the Administration to adopt a more demanding standard for testing air quality, the Administration has shown a complete lack of willingness to do so,” she wrote.

“We are deeply disappointed that the Administration plans to use a less demanding standard and are concerned for the health and safety of UTFA members, students and staff.”

In response to UTFA’s critiques, Mabury told The Varsity, “We believe we will endeavour to always do the best we can. We are holding ourselves to a standard that is connected to a legal requirement because it’s something we can point to that is real and substantive.”

He added that the safety of the U of T community is the administration’s highest priority.

Administration and consultation

Another chief concern that the labour organizations have voiced is what they perceive as the panel’s lack of meaningful consultation with the U of T community.

The three-person expert panel was chaired by epidemiologist and l’Université de Montréal professor Jack Siemiatycki as well as Roland Hosein and Andrea Sass‐Kortsak, both associated with the Division of Occupational and Environmental Health at the Dalla Lana School of Public Health.

Jess Taylor, the Chair of CUPE 3902, said that the panel failed to listen to criticism and that outreach was “abysmal” and inaccessible, adding that unions were only provided a 10-day notice for the feedback sessions.

“There was a democratic deficiency of representation regarding the review panel process and implementation,” Taylor said. In response, Mabury told The Varsity that the panel “went well beyond what [U of T] asked them to do.”

He also said that the panel’s timing of the consultations was based on its members’ limited availabilities due to their “high demand on a global basis to provide [their] expertise.”

The UTFA has also expressed concern that the panel was not at arm’s-length from the U of T administration, “whose conduct should have been under scrutiny.”

Mabury, however, stressed that the panel was not influenced by the U of T administration.

“These were independent scientists. They are academics… These folks were chosen for their expert opinion. That’s what we asked for. That’s what we got,” he told The Varsity.

Among the recommendations of the panel was a re-evaluation of the university’s Environmental Health & Safety (EHS) Department’s organizational structure.

Under the current structure, Mabury is responsible for the removal of asbestos during capital projects, Vice-President Research and Innovation Vivek Goel is responsible for broad environmental health and safety, while Vice-President Human Resources & Equity Kelly Hannah-Moffat is responsible for worker health.

“We believe that separation of oversight duties has an internal value in having internal checks and balances that wouldn’t be there if we coalesced everything into one portfolio,” Mabury said.

While asbestos management practices will not change, the university will more explicitly articulate each Vice-President’s roles and responsibilities in its asbestos management practices.

Evaluating experts’ expertise

Beyond the lack of community input, Zoric told The Varsity that the UTFA believes that the panel should have included more experts, and ones with different areas of expertise, as its three members did not have “practical experience in asbestos abatement and management, and did not include representatives from employee groups working in affected buildings.”

Mabury said that the three members were chosen because most peer reviews involve two to three experts. He added that they were “the best from amongst those nominated” from an open nomination period, citing Siemiatycki’s four decades of experience as a researcher.

The UTFA retained the services of Environmental Consulting Occupational Health (ECOH), an environmental consultant, soon after the 2017 incidents. According to Zoric, ECOH advised that the university’s current standards are not appropriate and do not meet the best practice standard that the report calls for.